Review Article
Volume 5 Issue 1 - 2020
Non-Coding RNAs Role in Self Renewal of Mammalian Spermatogonial Stem Cells
Sonia Saraswat*
APR Division, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura, India
*Corresponding Author: Sonia Saraswat, APR Division, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura, India.
Received: November 21, 2019; Published: December 23, 2019


Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation for spermatogenesis which depends on the ability to self-renewal, thus any disorder of SSC biological function can result in infertility. SSC functions has important implications for understanding male infertility and its treatment by controlling self-renewal and differentiation. The fundamental mechanism underlying how SSCs acquire and maintain their self-renewal activity is of paramount importance. Several types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), involving microRNA (miRNA), long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in stem cell self-renewal by forming complicated epigenetic regulatory networks together with other epigenetic factors related to DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation. miRNAs, as critical regulator is involved in regulating self-renewal of many types of stem cell, miRNAs including miR-29b, miR-24, miR-29a, miR-199b, miR-199a, miR-27a, and miR-21 have been identified that are expressed in goat SSCs by comparing the miRNA expression profiles between CD49f-positive and CD49f-negative testicular cells using small RNA deep sequencing. Moreover, PLZF, an important transcription factor could up-regulate the expression level of CXCR4 to promote goat SSC proliferation by directly targeting miR-146a. Similarly, LncRNAs are important players in diverse cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, stress response through complicated mechanisms involving lncRNA-mRNA, lncRNA-miRNA, lnRNA-DNA, lncRNA-protein. Also, some lncRNAs play critical regulatory roles in post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulation in self-renewal of SSCs. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs primarily expressed in the germline cells. Furthermore, circRNAs play essential roles in various biological processes through modulating gene expression via multiple actions, such as in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

Keywords: SSCs; Self-renewal; Non-coding RNA


  1. Phillips BT., et al. “Spermatogonial stem cell regulation and spermatogenesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London”. Series B Biological Sciences 365.1546 (2010): 1663-1678.
  2. Niu Z., et al. “MicroRNA-21 regulates the self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108.31 (2011): 12740-12745.
  3. Tseng YT., “Epigenetic factors in the regulation of prospermatogonia and spermatogonial stem cells”. Reproduction 150.3 (2015): R77-91.
  4. Hasegawa K., et al. “MEK/ERK signaling directly and indirectly contributes to the cyclical self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells”. Stem Cells 31.11 (2013): 2517-2527.
  5. Xu C., et al. “Long non-coding RNA GAS5 controls human embryonic stem cell self-renewal by maintaining NODAL signaling”. Nature Communications 7 (2016): 13287.
  6. Saitou M and Yamaji M. “Primordial germ cells in mice”. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 4.11 (2012): a008375.
  7. DeRooij DG. "Stem cells in the testis”. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 79.2 (1998): 67-80.
  8. Yoshida S. “Stem cells in mammalian spermatogenesis”. Development Growth and Differentiation 52 (2010): 311–317.
  9. Caires K., et al. “Maintaining the male germline: regulation of spermatogonial stem cells”. Journal of Endocrinology 205.2 (2010): 133-145.
  10. Wei X., et al. “GDNF-expressing STO feeder layer supports the long-term propagation of undifferentiated mouse spermatogonia with stem cell properties”. Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 36779.
  11. Kanatsu-Shinohara M., et al. “Myc/Mycn-mediated glycolysis enhances mouse spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal”. Genes and Development 30.23 (2016): 2637-2648.
  12. Liao HF., et al. “DNMT3L promotes quiescence in postnatal spermatogonial progenitor cells”. Development 141.12 (2014): 2402-2413.
  13. Zhang R., et al. “Advances in Isolation Methods for Spermatogonial Stem Cells”. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports 12.1 (2016): 15-25.
  14. He L and Hannon GJ. “MicroRNAs: small RNAs with a big role in gene regulation”. Nature Reviews Genetics 5.7 (2004): 522-531.
  15. Li N., et al. “microRNAs: important regulators of stem cells”. Stem Cell Research and Therapy 8.1 (2017): 110.
  16. Wu J., et al. “CD49f-positive testicular cells in Saanen dairy goat were identified as spermatogonia-like cells by miRNA profiling analysis”. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 115.10 (2014): 1712-1723.
  17. Mu H., et al. “PLZF-Induced Upregulation of CXCR4 Promotes Dairy Goat Male Germline Stem Cell Proliferation by Targeting Mir146a”. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 117.4 (2016): 844-852.
  18. Niu B., et al. “miR-204 Regulates the Proliferation of Dairy Goat Spermatogonial Stem Cells via Targeting to Sirt1”. Rejuvenation Research 19.2 (2016): 120-130.
  19. Fatica A and Bozzoni I. “Long non-coding RNAs: new players in cell differentiation and development”. Nature Reviews Genetics 15.1 (2014): 7-21.
  20. Nakagawa S. “Lessons from reverse-genetic studies of lncRNAs”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1859.1 (2016): 177-183.
  21. Weng B., et al. “Genome-wide analysis of long non-coding RNAs and their role in postnatal porcine testis development”. Genomics 109.5-6 (2017): 446-456.
  22. Ku HY., et al. “PIWI proteins and their interactors in piRNA biogenesis, germline development and gene expression”. National Science Review 1.2 (2014): 205-218.
  23. Gou LT., et al. “Pachytene piRNAs instruct massive mRNA elimination during late spermiogenesis”. Cell Research 24.6 (2014): 680-700.
  24. Lee JH., et al. “Stem cell protein Piwil2 modulates expression of murine spermatogonial stem cell expressed genes”. Molecular Reproduction and Development 73.2 (2006): 173-179.
  25. Ebbesen KK., et al. “Insights into circular RNA biology”. RNA Biology 14.8 (2017): 1035- 1045.
  26. Zeng X., et al. “A comprehensive overview and evaluation of circular RNA detection tools”. PLOS Computational Biology 13.6 (2017):e1005420.
  27. Qu S., et al. “The emerging landscape of circular RNA in life processes”. RNA Biology 14.8 (2017): 992-999.
  28. Saraswat S., et al. “Non-coding RNAs role in self renewal of Goat SSCs”. ICAR-CIRG News XIX (2018): 3-4.
Citation: Sonia Saraswat. “Non-Coding RNAs Role in Self Renewal of Mammalian Spermatogonial Stem Cells”. EC Veterinary Science 5.1 (2020): 01-05.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.