Research Article
Volume 7 Issue 7 - 2022
Effects of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Ration Supplementation on Growth Parameters in Guinea Pigs

Nkana Kontchiachou J Gwladys1*, Kouamo Justin2, Vemo Bertin Narcisse3, Mweugang Ngouopo Nathalie4, Wang-baa Temoa Christophe1, Awantu christian1, Semi Yam Alphonsius1, Kenne Christèle5 and Tendonkeng Fernand5

1Agronomic Research Institute for Development (IRAD), Mankon, Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon

2School of Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

4Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

5Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

*Corresponding Author: Nkana Kontchiachou J Gwladys, Agronomic Research Institute for Development (IRAD), Mankon, Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon.
Received: June 02, 2022; Published: June 29, 2022


Because of the antibiotics growth promoters restriction in livestock farming, there is a growing interest in plant feed additives. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementing cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) powder on growth parameters in guinea pigs. For this purpose, 60 adult female guinea pigs, with an average weight of 450 ± 50g were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (20 females per group). Experimental diets consisted of incorporating clove powder in the control ration at 0.5% (CG0.5) and 0.75% (CG0.75) of feed. These female guinea pigs were given experimental diets, from mating to weaning at 3 weeks after parturition. Their weaned piglets too received the respective experimental diets, from weaning to 8 weeks post-partum. The feed intake of reproductive females and piglets, the live weight, weight gain, carcass yield and relative weights of liver, kidney and spleen were evaluated as growth parameters. Results showed that the ingestion of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fibres of reproductive female guinea pigs were significantly (p < 0.05) higher with the inclusion of Syzygium aromaticum powder at 0.75% when compared to the control group. The ingested dry matter, organic matter, crude fibres and minerals of young guinea pigs were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by this spice, but the crude protein intake decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with the inclusion of Syzygium aromaticum powder. The dietary treatments had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the carcass yield, relative weights of the liver, kidney and spleen of piglets, referring to the control diet. In conclusion, Syzygium aromaticum powder can be used up to 0.75% in reproductive female guinea pigs and 0.5% in piglets as feed supplement without any adverse effects on the growth parameters.


Keywords: Animal Feed; Growth Parameters; Guinea Pigs; Supplementation; Syzygium aromaticum


  1. Steiner T. ‘‘Managing gut health Natural Growth Promoters as a key to animal performance’’. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK (2006): 98.
  2. Doyle JJ and Luckow MA. ‘‘The Rest of the Iceberg. Legume Diversity and Evolution in a Phylogenetic Context’’. Plant Physiology3 (2003): 900-910.
  3. Ghazanfari S., et al. ‘‘Intestinal morphology and microbiology of broiler chicken fed diets containing myrtle (Mirtus communis) essential oil supplementation’’. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science3 (2014): 549-554.
  4. Jimoh SO., et al. ‘‘Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial evaluation of Syzygium aromaticum extract and essential oil’’. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6 (2017): 4557-4567.
  5. Ertas ON., et al. ‘‘The effect of an essential oil mix derived from oregano, clove and anise on broiler performance’’. International Journal of poultry Science11 (2005): 879-884.
  6. Al-Shaikh N and Perveen K. ‘‘Anti-candidal activity and chemical composition of essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)’’. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 20 (2017): 951-958.
  7. Boutsoglou NA., et al. ‘‘The effect of dietary oregano essential oil on lipid oxidation in raw cooked chicken during refrigerated storage’’. Meat Science 62 (2002): 259-265.
  8. Mustafa DBM. ‘‘Effect of mixture of three herbal essential oils on performance, carcass yield and blood serum constituents of broiler chicks’’. Sudan University of Science and Technology 5 (2016): 63-72.
  9. Mahrous HS., et al. ‘‘Effects of different levels of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) dietary supplementation on immunity, antioxidant status, and performance in broiler chickens’’. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Science 54 (2017): 29-39.
  10. Tariq H., et al. ‘‘Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) supplementation on immune status, haematological and serum biochemical parameters in Japanese quails’’. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 31 (2015): 293-296.
  11. Agostini PS., et al. ‘‘Role of in-feed clove supplementation on growth performance, intestinal microbiology, and morphology in broiler chicken’’. Livestock Sciences 147 (2012): 113-118.
  12. Cortes-Rojas DF., et al. ‘‘Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): A precious spice’’. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine2 (2014): 90-96.
  13. Najafi P and Torki M. ‘‘Performance, blood metabolites and immune competence of broiler chicks fed diets included essential oils of medicinal herbs’’. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9 (2010): 1164-1168.
  14. O.A.C (Association of Official Analytical Chemist). ‘‘Official method of analysis’’. 17th edition. A.O.A.C. Washington D.C. (2000).
  15. ‘‘L’aviculture en milieu tropical’’. (Edition) Jourdain International, Couloumiers (1980): 43-45.
  16. Jamroz D and Kamel C. “Plant extracts enhance boiler performance. In non-ruminant nutrition: Antimicrobial agents and plant extract on immunity, health and performance”. Journal of Animal Science1 (2002): 41.
  17. Çabuk., et al. ‘‘Antimicrobial properties of the essential oils isolated from aromatic plants and using possibility as alternative feed additives”. Proceedings of the 2nd National Animal Nutrition Congress (2003): 184-187.
  18. Frankic T., et al. ‘‘Use of herbs and spices and their extracts in animal nutrition’’. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica 94 (2009): 95-102.
  19. Windisch W., et al. ‘‘Uses of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry’’. Journal of Animal Science 86 (2008): 140-148.
  20. Boucher S. ‘‘Alimentation des lagomorphes et rongeurs de compagnie: quelques données de base’’. In: CNVSPA (editions.). Congrès annuel: “Conduite diagnostique et thérapeutique: actualités”, Paris, (1995): 151-160.
  21. Jornet Boullery M. “Biologie et pathologie générale du cobaye”. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Alfort, (1981) : 102.
  22. Rosse L. “Alimentation des rongeurs et lagomorphes de compagnie”. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Alfort, (1999) : 10.
Citation: Nkana Kontchiachou J Gwladys., et al. “Effects of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Ration Supplementation on Growth Parameters in Guinea Pigs”. EC Veterinary Science 7.7 (2022): 03-14.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 09, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.