Research Article
Volume 6 Issue 3 - 2021
The Effects of a Quillaja/Yucca Saponin Combination on Performance, Clostridium perfringens Counts and Percentage of Salmonella Positive Broiler Chickens
KW Bafundo1*, I Duerr2, JL McNaughton3 and AB Johnson1
1Phibro Animal Health Corporation, USA
2Smart Data Science Solutions, USA
3AHPharma, Inc., USA
*Corresponding Author: KW Bafundo, Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ, USA.
Received: January 30, 2021; Published: February 27, 2021




Abstract

A series of four floor pen trials was carried out to determine the effects of a Quillaja and Yucca combination product (QY) on growth performance of broiler chickens reared in a high disease challenge environment. The trials also determined number of Clostridium perfringens in faeces and percentage of birds harboring Salmonella in their intestines. In each trial, used litter from farms known to have had outbreaks of necrotic enteritis and difficulties with Salmonella was used as bedding material. QY was administered in feed at 0, 250 and 500 ppm and fed for the duration of the 42-day tests. Data from the four studies were pooled and performance and total mortality were evaluated at 21 and 42 days of age. Intestinal and faecal samples were collected at the same intervals in order to quantify faecal Clostridium perfringens counts and the incidence of Salmonella. Results demonstrated that QY produced significant linear improvements (P < 0.001) in performance and mortality. At both 21 and 42 days, significant linear reductions (P < 0.001) in numbers of faecal Clostridia were observed and the percentage of birds harboring Salmonella was reduced. These results indicate that in addition to improving bird performance and mortality, QY may reduce the levels of important bacteria that adversely affect bird performance and influence the safety and acceptability of poultry meat products.

Keywords: Saponins; Quillaja/Yucca Combination; Broiler Performance; Clostridium perfringens; Salmonella

References

    1. Arakawa A., et al. “Eimeria tenella infection enhances Salmonella typhimurium infection in chickens”. Poultry Science 60 (1981): 2203-2209.
    2. Augustin J., et al. “Molecular activities, biosynthesis and evolution of triterpenoid saponins”. Phytochemistry 72 (2011): 435-457.
    3. Bacteriological Analytical Manual of the US Food and Drug Administration (2020).
    4. Bacteriological Analytical Manual of the US Food and Drug Administration (2017).
    5. Bafundo KW., et al. “The effects of a combination of Quillaja saponaria and Yucca schidigera on Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens”. Avian Diseases 3 (2020): 300-304.
    6. Bafundo KW., et al. “Concurrent use of saponins and live coccidiosis vaccines: effects of a quillaja/yucca combination on performance and anticoccidial effects in growing broilers”. Poultry Science 100 (2021): 10095.
    7. Cheeke P. “Actual and potential application of Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria saponins in human and animal nutrition”. Journal of Animal Science1 (2000): 1-10.
    8. Collier C., et al. “Coccidial-induced mucogenesis promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis by promoting Clostridium perfringens growth”. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology1-2 (2008): 104-115.
    9. De Mendiburu F. agricolae: Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research”. R Package Version (2020): 1.3-3.
    10. Fleck J., et al. “Saponins from Quillaja saponaria and Quillaja brasiliensis: particular chemical characteristics and biological activities”. Molecules1 (2019): 271-299.
    11. Francis G., et al. “The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review”. British Journal of Nutrition 88 (2002): 587-605.
    12. Hassan S., et al. “Hemolytic and antimicrobial activities differ among saponin-rich extracts from guar, quillaja, yucca, and soybean”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology4:(2010a): 1008-1017.
    13. Hassan S., et al. “Haemolytic and antimicrobial activities of saponin-rich extracts from guar meal”. Food Chemistry 119 (2010b): 600-605.
    14. Holm S. “A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure”. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics2 (1979): 65-70.
    15. Kensil CR. “Saponins as vaccine adjuvants”. Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems1-2 (1996): 1-55.
    16. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry”. 9th National Academies Press, Washington, D.C (1994).
    17. R Core Team. “R: A language and environment for statistical computing”. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria (2018).
    18. Rocha TD., et al. “Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of saponins from Quillaja, Passiflora, and Ilex”. Parasitology Research 110 (2012): 2551-2556.
    19. Sen S., et al. “Effect of Quillaja saponaria saponins and Yucca schidigera plant extract on growth of Escherichia coli”. Letters in Applied Microbiology1 (1998): 27-35.
    20. Sparg S., et al. “Biological activities and distribution of plant saponins”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology2-3 (2004): 219-243.
    21. Timbermont L., et al. “Necrotic enteritis in broilers: an updated review on the pathogenesis”. Avian Pathology4 (2011): 341-347.
Citation: KW Bafundo., et al. “The Effects of a Quillaja/Yucca Saponin Combination on Performance, Clostridium perfringens Counts and Percentage of Salmonella Positive Broiler Chickens”. EC Veterinary Science 6.3 (2021): 40-45.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 24, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk