Review Article
Volume 6 Issue 2 - 2021
Nutritional Profile and Potential Health Benefits of Donkey Milk and Milk Products
Dasharath Patel1, Suneeta Pinto1 and Mahendra Pal2*
1Dairy Technology Department, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India
2Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, Anand, India
*Corresponding Author: Mahendra Pal, Professor, Founder Director of Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, Anand, India.
Received: October 17, 2020; Published: January 30, 2021




Abstract

Milk and milk products being rich in various nutrients are consumed globally as a part of human diet. Consumption of donkey milk and milk products is well-known since time immemorial. There appears to be an increasing awareness in using donkey’s milk in human diet. Donkey milk contains a plethora of antimicrobial components as well as protective factors, which makes it unique milk from amongst milk of other species of animals. The chemical composition of donkey milk is comparable to human milk in terms of its low casein/whey protein ratio, low fat content, and high lactose content. In addition to similarity in nutrition composition, it has similar hypo-allergenicity, immune homeostasis conditions, and antimicrobial activity as human milk. Because of this donkey milk is considered as a functional food, and there is a growing interest in manufacturing of milk products from donkey’s milk. Currently, donkey milk has been used in the preparation of a variety of dairy products viz. cheese, ice cream, milk powder and novel functional fermented beverages. As raw milk acts as a vehicle for pathogenic microbes that causes several diseases including brucellosis and tuberculosis, it is therefore, imperative that milk should be properly pasteurized to safeguard the health of the people.

Keywords: Donkey Milk; Functional Food; Health Benefits; Milk Products; Nutritional Profile

References

  1. Gupta AK., et al. “Phenotypic clustering of Indian donkey population belonging to six agroclimatic regions”. Journal of Biodiversity and Endangered Species 5 (2017): 1-8.
  2. Tafaro A., et al. “Immunological properties of donkey’s milk: its potential use in the prevention of atherosclerosis”. Current Pharmaceutical Design 36 (2007): 3711-3717.
  3. Carroccio A., et al. “Intolerance to hydrolysed cow’s milk proteins in infants: clinical characteristics and dietary treatment”. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 11 (2000): 1597-1603.
  4. Muhe L., et al. “The Butajira Rural Health Project in Ethiopia: mothers’ perceptions and practices in the care of children with acute respiratory infections”. International Journal of Health Sciences 3 (1994): 99-103.
  5. Salimei E and Fantuz F. “Equid milk for human consumption”. The International Dairy Journal 2 (2012): 130-142.
  6. Jirillo F and Magrone T. “Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of donkey’s and goat’s milk”. Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune 1 (2014): 27-37.
  7. Polidori P., et al. “Donkey milk production: state of the art”. Italian Journal of Animal Science 2 (2009): 677-683.
  8. Martemucci G and D’Alessandro AG. “Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition”. Lipids in Health and Disease 1 (2012): 113-126.
  9. Monti G., et al. “Efficacy of donkey’s milk in treating highly problematic cow’s milk allergic children: An In vivo and In vitro study”. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 18 (2007): 258-264.
  10. Monti G., et al. “Tolerability of donkey's milk in 92 highly-problematic cow's milk allergic children”. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 3 (2012): 75-82.
  11. Trinchese G., et al. “Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11 (2015): 1136-1146.
  12. Marletta D., et al. “Donkey milk proteins: Digestibility and nutritional significance. Milk protein-From Structure to Biological Properties and Health Aspects”. Gigli, I., Ed (2016): 199-209.
  13. Murgia A., et al. “Characterization of donkey milk and metabolite profile comparison with human milk and formula milk”. LWT- Food Science and Technology 74 (2016): 427-433.
  14. Devi S., et al. “Donkey milk: A very recent nutritional “Pharmafood”. Indian Dairyman7 (2018): 45-61.
  15. zeenews.india.com/india/india-to-soon-get-dairy-for-donkey-milk-one-litre-milk-may-sell-for-rs-7000
  16. Giribaldi M., et al. “A preliminary assessment of HTST processing on donkey milk”. Veterinary Sciences 4 (2917): 50.
  17. Salimei E., et al. “Composition and characteristics of ass’s milk”. Animal Research 1 (2004): 67-78.
  18. Martini M., et al. “Amiata donkeys: fat globule characteristics, milk gross composition and fatty acids”. Italian Journal of Animal Science 1 (2014): 123-126.
  19. Astolfia ML., et al. “Comparative elemental analysis of dairy milk and plant-based milk alternatives”. Food Control 116 (2020): 107327.
  20. Guo H., et al. “Composition, physiochemical properties, nitrogen fraction distribution, and amino acid profile of donkey milk”. Journal of Dairy Science4 (2007): 1635-1643.
  21. Vincenzetti S., et al. “Donkeys milk protein fractions characterization”. Food Chemistry 2 (2008): 640-649.
  22. Ragona G., et al. “Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality”. Italian Journal of Food Safety 3 (2016): 173-178.
  23. Luo J., et al. “Thermal instability and characteristics of donkey casein micelles”. Food Research International 119 (2019): 436-443.
  24. Li L., et al. “The nutritional ingredients and antioxidant activity of donkey milk and donkey milk powder”. Food Science and Biotechnology 2 (2018): 393-400.
  25. Tidona F., et al. “Gross composition and nutritional properties of donkey milk produced in Sicily. Composizionechimica e proprietànutrizionalidel latte di asinaprodotto in Sicilia”. Sci Tecn Latt Cas3 (2011): 217-221.
  26. Lara-Villoslada F., et al. “The balance between caseins and whey proteins in cow’s milk determines its allergenicity”. Journal of Dairy Science 5 (2005):1654-1660.
  27. Giorgis V., et al. “A case of work-related donkey milk allergy”. The Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology 3 (2018): 197-199.
  28. Caroli AM., et al. “lactoprotein profile and total proteasic activity of donkey milk”. Sci Tecn Latt Cas1-2 (2005): 11-16.
  29. Chen Q., et al. “Simultaneous quantification of a-lactalbumin and b-casein in human milk using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on their signature peptides and winged isotope internal standards”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 9 (2016): 1122-1130.
  30. Bertino E., et al. “Detailed proteomic analysis on DM: insight into its hypoallergenicity”. Frontiers in Bioscience 2 (2010): 526-536.
  31. Claeys W., et al. “Consumption of raw or heated milk from different species: an evaluation of the nutritional and potential health benefits”. Food Control 42 (2014): 188-201.
  32. Ballard O AND Morrow AL. “Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors”. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1 (2013): 49-74.
  33. Areco V., et al. “Dietary and pharmacological compounds altering intestinal calcium absorption in humans and animals”. Nutrition Research Reviews 2 (2015): 83-99.
  34. Coppola R., et al. “Behaviour of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in ass’s milk”. Annals of Microbiology 1 (2002): 55-60.
  35. Orlandi M., et al. “Sialylated oligosaccharides in mare and ass milk: preliminary results”. Progress in Nutrition 18 (2016): 283-287.
  36. Fantuz F., et al. “Donkey milk concentration of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium”. The International Dairy Journal 2 (2012): 143-145.
  37. Picciano MF. “Representative values for constituents of human milk”. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1 (2001): 263-264.
  38. Martini M., et al. “The macrostructure of milk lipids: the fat globules”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 7 (2016): 1209-1221.
  39. Malacarne M., et al. “Protein and fat composition of mare’s milk: some nutritional remarks with reference to human and cow’s milk”. The International Dairy Journal 12 (2002): 869-877.
  40. Silvia V., et al. “Donkey’s milk protein fractions characterization”. Food Chemistry 2 (2008): 640-649.
  41. Polidori P., et al. “Use of donkey milk in cases of cow's milk protein allergies”. The International Journal 3 (2015): 175.
  42. Moltó-Puigmartí C., et al. “Effects of pasteurization and high-pressure processing on vitamin C, tocopherols and fatty acids in mature human milk”. Food Chemistry 3 (2011): 697-702.
  43. Vincenzetti S., et al. “Effects of lyophilization and use of probiotics on donkey’s milk nutritional characteristics”. International Journal of Food Engineering 7 (2011): 1-16.
  44. Weir RR., et al. “Environmental and genetic factors influence the vitamin D content of cows’ milk”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1 (2017):76-82.
  45. Giacometti F., et al. “Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions”. Journal of Dairy Science6 (2016): 4291-4299.
  46. D'Alessandro AG., et al. “Production of cheese from donkey milk as influenced by addition of transglutaminase”. Journal of Dairy Science12 (2019): 10867-10876.
  47. Iannella G. “Donkey cheese made through pure camel chymosin”. African Journal of Food Science 7 (2015): 421-425.
  48. Galassi L., et al. “Ass's milk as substitute of lysozyme from hen egg white in Italian hard cheese making: first results”. Scienza e TecnicaLattiero-Casearia1 (2012): 73-79.
  49. Sampaio PN. “Cheese production by donkey’s milk using an aspartic protease from plant origin”. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 1 (2017): 1-6.
  50. Niro S., et al. “Technological use of donkey milk in cheese making”. International Journal of Dairy Technology 3 (2017): 439-442.
  51. Šarić LĆ., et al. “Characterization of extra-hard cheese produced from donkeys’ and caprine milk mixture”. Dairy Science and Technology 2 (2016): 227-241.
  52. Faccia M., et al. “Chemical sensory traits of fresh cheese made by enzymatic coagulation of donkey milk”. Foods1 (2010): 16.
  53. Cosentino C., et al. “Jenny milk as an inhibitor of late blowing in cheese: A preliminary report”. Journal of Dairy Science 6 (2013): 3547-3550.
  54. Faccia M., et al. “Technological attempts at producing cheese from donkey milk”. The Journal of Dairy Research 3 (2018): 327-330.
  55. Tidona F., et al. “Functional properties of a strawberry ice cream based on donkey milk and lactic acid bacteria”. Nutrition and Food Science International Journal 3 (2017): 32-36.
  56. Divya V. “Development of Process Technology for Production of Instant Donkey Milk Powder (Doctoral dissertation, University of Agricultural Sciences GKVK, Bangalore,India) (2019).
  57. Nayak M. “Development of process technology for production of donkey milk powder and its sorption behaviour studies for shelf-life prediction (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Agricultural Sciences Raichur,India) (2018).
  58. Di Renzo GC., et al. “Donkey milk powder production and properties compared to other milk powders”. Dairy Science and Technology 4-5 (2013): 551-564.
  59. Ozturkoglu‐Budak S. “Effect of different treatments on the stability of lysozyme, lactoferrin and β‐lactoglobulin in donkey's milk”. International Journal of Dairy Technology 1 (2018): 36-45.
  60. Vincenzetti S., et al. “Effects of freeze-drying and spray-drying on donkey milk volatile compounds and whey proteins stability”. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie 88 (2018): 189-195.
  61. Cosentino C., et al. “Effects of different heat treatments on lysozyme quantity and antimicrobial activity of jenny milk”. Journal of Dairy Science 7 (2016): 5173-5179.
  62. Carminati D., et al. “Biotyping of cultivable lactic acid bacteria isolated from donkey milk”. Journal of and Letters in Applied Microbiology3 (2014): 299-305.
  63. Turchi B., et al. “Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus thermophilus as starter cultures for a donkey milk fermented beverage”. International Journal of Food Microbiology 256 (2017): 54-61.
  64. Chiavari C., et al. “Use of donkey’s milk for a fermented beverage with lactobacilli”. Le Lait 6 (2005): 481-490.
  65. Tsakali E., et al. “A Preliminary study on the development of donkey milk based fermented product”. Scientific Reviews and Chemical Communications3 (2018): 115-121.
  66. Perna A., et al. “Donkey milk for manufacture of novel functional fermented beverages”. Journal of Food Science 6 (2015): 1352-1359.
  67. Salakidou C., et al. “Biochemical characteristics of yogurt beverage from donkey milk”. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation1201 (2012): 157.
  68. Tidona F., et al. “Fermented beverage emulsion based on donkey milk with sunflower oil”. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 12 (2015): 2644-2652.
  69. Yirmibeşoğlu SSS and Oztürk BET. “Comparing microbiological profiles, bioactivities, and physicochemical and sensory properties of donkey milk kefir and cow milk kefir”. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and - Academic Journals 4 (2020): 774-781.
  70. Nazzaro F., et al. “The use of probiotic strains in the production of a donkey milk-based functional beverage”. International Probiotics Prebiotics2 (2010): 91.
Citation: Mahendra Pal., et al. “Nutritional Profile and Potential Health Benefits of Donkey Milk and Milk Products”. EC Veterinary Science 6.2 (2021): 31-41.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk