Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 12 - 2020
COVID-19: Role of Animals in Transmission
Raúl González Salas1*, Lucía Fuentes Jiménez2, José Alfredo Guevara Franco3, María Belén Olivarez Yaguar1, Mildre Mercedes Vidal del Río1 and Osmaida Estrada Cutiño4
1Universidad Regional Autónoma de Los Andes, Ecuador
2Instituto Tecnológico Superior del Oriente del Estado de Hidalgo. (ITESA), México
3Department Animal Health, University Autónoma de Baja California Sur, México
4Department Veterinary Medicine, University of Granma, Cuba
*Corresponding Author: Raúl González Salas, Universidad Regional Autónoma de Los Andes, Ecuador.
Received: October 12, 2020; Published: November 07, 2020


The spread of Covid-19 took the form of a pandemic when the WHO declared the day of January 30, 2020 as a global health emergency, after a bibliographic review of the most up-to-date data on humans. It has been determined that beta coronaviruses are the causative agent in the triad of the disease and having bats and/or pangolins as host first, after which it had humans as host. In order to publicize the role of animals in the transmission of COVID-19, a qualitative systematic bibliographic review was carried out, by searching the Medline and Clinical Key databases. Pangolins were found to be a major reservoir of betacoronavirus. It is concluded that pangolins are the wild animals most likely to be the causative agent for Covid-19, there is not enough scientific evidence to show that domestic animals can spread SARS-Co2 and cats and ferrets turned out to be the animal species more susceptible to infection.

Keywords: Animals; COVID-19; Transmission


  1. Quesada C., et al. “Coronavirus COVID-19: clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment”. Health Sciences Magazine. Medicine - UNIBE. 3.4 (2020).
  2. Cortés M. “Coronavirus as a threat to public health”. Medical Journal of Chile1 (2020): 124-126.
  3. Estrada P., et al. “Use value, cultural importance and perceptions on medium and large wild mammals in the Mixteca Poblana. 2018”. Acta Zoológica Mexicana 34 (2018): e3412131.
  4. Cunningham A., et al. “One Health, emerging infectious diseases and wildlife: two decades of progress?” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. (2020).
  5. Daszak P., et al. “Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife-threats to biodiversity and human health”. Science 287 (2020): 443-449.
  6. Velavan T and Meyer C. “The COVID‐19 epidemic”. Tropical Medicine and International Health 3 (2020): 278-280.
  7. Inca GP and Inca AC. “Evolution of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Ecuador”. CSSN 11.1 (2020).
  8. Adhikari S., et al. “Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review”. Springer (2020).
  9. Silva J and Marcial Ibo. “SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses and their relationship with safety in the food chain”. Scientia Agropecuaria2 (2020): 267-277.
  10. Acha P and Szyfres B. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals Third Edition (2020).
  11. Rodríguez H. “Los pangolines pueden portar diversos coronavirus relacionados con el SARS-CoV-2”. National Geographic (2020).
  12. Tsan-Yuk T., et al. “Identifying SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolin”. Nature 583 (2020): 282-285.
  13. Ye Q., et al. “Epidemiological analysis of COVID‐19 and practical experience from China”. Journal of Medical Virology 7 (2020): 755-769.
  14. Liu Xing and Za Zhi B. “The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) in China”. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi2 (2020): 145-151.
  15. Lam TTY., et al. “Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in southern China”. BioRxiv (2020).
  16. Zhou M., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical update”. Journal of Infection (2020).
  17. Sahu K., et al. “Trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic: chasing a moving target”. Annals of Translational Medicine 11 (2020): 694.
  18. Zhu N., et al. “A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019”. New England Journal of Medicine (2020): 1-7.
  19. Shi J., et al. “Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and different domestic animals to SARS-coronavirus-2”. Biorxiv Science (2020): abb7015.
  20. Brownlie J. “Conclusive proof needed for animal virus reservoirs”. Veterinary Record186 (2020): 354.
  21. Nuevo coronavirus 2019 (2020).
Citation: Raúl González Salas., et al. “COVID-19: Role of Animals in Transmission”. EC Veterinary Science 5.12 (2020): 07-12.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.