Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 9 - 2020
Total Protein Concentrations in Brain Regions and Testicular/Tubal Fluids of Rabbits Fed Cassava Peel Meal as Replacement for Maize
Evans Emem Iboro1, Ozung Pascal Ogar2* and Kennedy Oluwatosin Ohotuowo Oluwamoroti2
1Department of Animal Science, Akwa Ibom State University, Obio Akpa Campus, Uyo, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and WRM, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ozung Pascal Ogar, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and WRM, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
Received: July 20, 2020; Published: August 08, 2020




Abstract

Cheaper unconventional feed materials whose metabolizable energy is similar or closed to maize could be used in animal diets. This study investigated the effect of replacing maize with cassava peel meal (CPM) on the total protein concentrations in the brain regions and testicular/tubal fluids of rabbits. Sixty crossed bred weaned rabbits with an average initial bodyweight of 559.58 ± 0.42g/rabbit were used. The animals were assigned to experimental diets using a completely randomised design. Five experimental diets were formulated with ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 maize: sun dried CPM for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, six rabbits per treatment were sacrificed by stunning and decapitation. The heads were severed and immediately dissected for brain harvest. The various brain regions were separately homogenized. The testes and epididymis of the bucks as well as segments of the female reproductive tract were also homogenised and total protein concentrations determined by the biuret method. Results showed that the total protein concentrations in all the brain regions were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by dietary treatments except the medulla oblongata. The protein concentration decreased as the level of CPM replacement increases with 100% level recording the least values. The protein concentration in the testicular/tubal fluids recorded a fluctuating trend that could not be ascribed to diets. The study concluded that cassava peel meal could serve as a better substitute for maize up to 75% without any serious adverse effects on the brain and reproductive organs of rabbits.

Keywords:Brain; Cassava Peel; Protein; Rabbits; Reproduction

References

  1. Attah S., et al. “Effect of replacement of rice offal with graded levels of melon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed offal on performance of growing rabbits”. The Nigerian Society for Animal Production 38.2 (2011): 67-73.
  2. FAO. “Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The state of food and Agriculture”. Rome, Italy (2013).
  3. Taiwo AA., et al. “Performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate”. The Nigerian Society for Animal Production 32.1 (2005): 74-78.
  4. Oyedeji OJ., et al. “Performance and carcass characteristics of weaned rabbits fed varying levels of unfermented cocoa pod husk meal (CPHM). Proceeding of the 36th Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, 13th -16th March, University of Abuja Nigeria (2011): 758-761.
  5. Aduku AO and Olukosi JO. “Rabbit Management in the Tropics: production, processing, utilization, marketing, economics, practical training, research and prospects Living Books GU publication, Abuja (1990).
  6. Ojebiyi OO., et al. “Reproductive potentials of rabbit does fed diets containing processed cassava peel/ blood meal mixture”. International Journal of Livestock Production 4.4 (2013): 42-48.
  7. FAO. “Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Good practices for industry- implementation, the codex Alimentarius Code of practice on good animal feeding”. FAO Animal Production and Health Manual, Rome (2010): 9.
  8. Agunbiade JA., et al. “Performance characteristics of weaner rabbits on cassava peels based balanced diets”. The Nigerian Society for Animal Production 29 (2002): 171-175.
  9. McCalla AF. “World food prices: causes and consequences”. Canada Journal of Agricultural Economics 57 (2009): 23-34.
  10. Nwokoro SO., et al. “Effect of replacement of maize with Cassava peel on cockerels’ diet on performance and carcass characteristics”. Tropical Animal Health and Production 37.6 (2005): 495-501.
  11. Omole AJ., et al. “Performance characteristics of weaned rabbits fed graded levels of dried cassava peel fortified with soy corn residue basal diet”. Journal of Agriculture and Environment 3.1 (2005): 27-32.
  12. Anderson MD., et al. “Cytochromes P-450 from cassava (Manihot esculanta crantz) catalysing the first steps in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (2000): 1966-1975.
  13. Google Earth. GeoNames geographical database, courtesy of Google Earth. Traveling luck for Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Time Zone, Latitude, Longitude, elevation and map satellite image (2019).
  14. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition, Washington, DC 1 (2000): 69-90.
  15. Bitto II., et al. “Changes in protein concentration of testicular spermatozoa and fluid during sperm maturation in male rabbits fed kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed meal. Proceeding of the 33rd Annual conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, held at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria (2008).
  16. Egbunike GN. “Regional distribution of acetyl cholinesterase activity in the brain and hypophyses of crossbred European boars reared in the humid tropics”. Acta Anaesthesiologica 110 (1981): 248-252.
  17. Gbore FA and Egbunike GN. “Total protein concentrations in brain regions and hypophyses of pubertal boars fed dietary fumonism B1. Proceeding of the 37th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production (NSAP, held at the College of Animal Science, University of Agriculture, Makurdi (2012): 144-147.
  18. Egbunike GN and Adegunle SA. “Regional variation in protein and alkaline phosphate content in the genital tract fluid of porcine females”. American Journal of Veterinary Medicine 27 (1980): 319-329.
  19. Steel RGD and Torrie JH. “Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometric Approach”. 2nd edition, McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York, USA (1980): 481.
  20. Bitto II. “Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male rabbits fed pawpaw peel meal based diets”. African Journal of Biomedical Research 11 (2008): 73-78.
  21. Bitto II and Egbunike GN. “Seasonal variations in the morphometric characteristics of the pubertal West African dwarf buck in its native tropical environment”. International Journal of Morphology 24 (2006): 637-642.
  22. Ozung PO., et al. “The potentials of small ruminant production in Cross River Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria: A review”. Continental Journal of Animal and Veterinary Research 3.1 (2011): 33-37.
Citation: Ozung Pascal Ogar., et al.“Total Protein Concentrations in Brain Regions and Testicular/Tubal Fluids of Rabbits Fed Cassava Peel Meal as Replacement for Maize”. EC Veterinary Science 5.9 (2020): 40-46.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.