Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 10 - 2020
Epidemiological Situation of Canine Leishmaniosis in Kabylia
Mouloua A1*, Seklaoui N1, Mezai G2, Kerrachi I2, Bouiba L2, Edaikra N2, Benikhlef R2 and Harrat Z2
1Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi Ouzou (UMMTO), Tizi Ouzou, Algeria
2Laboratoire d'Eco-Epidémiologie et Génétique des Populations, Algeria
*Corresponding Author: Mouloua A, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi Ouzou (UMMTO), Tizi Ouzou, Algeria.
Received: July 14, 2020; Published: September 30, 2020




Abstract

In order to evaluate the epidemiological situation of canine Leishmaniasis in the Kabylia of Djurdjura, one of the most active focus of human visceral Leishmaniasis, indirect immunofluorescence serological screening was carried out on two batches of dogs: the first batch was consisting of 43 animals from veterinary practices in the city of Tizi Ouzou, the second batch consists of 559 dogs randomly selected through the various ecological strata that form this region.

Overall, 10.13% of the animals showed specific antibodies, with a titre equal to or greater than 1/80. The dogs in the first batch were positive in 18.6% of cases while those in the second group had a prevalence of 9.48%. Among the dogs of the second batch, the seroprevalence varies according to the site where the animals reside: whereas it is 0% at the level of the littoral, it reaches 17.12% in the depression of Dra El Mizan; the dogs living in the Sébaou Valley and in the Massif ancien had an equivalent seroprevalence, around 7%.

By considering the seroprevalence according to the age of the animals, we noticed that the older ones were the most affected compared to the young people. The difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05), but the sex does not seem to have an impact on the affection.

With regard to the breed of dogs, German shepherds had the highest seroprevalence.

Among the clinical signs observed, it is the skin lesions that come back most often, whereas 67.92% of seropositive dogs were asymptomatic.

We carried out on a random sample of 90 animals the search for the parasite DNA by the so-called "classical" PCR. The rate of PCR-positive animals is 74.44% while the same sample detected by the IFI has a seropositivity of 16.66%. Both diagnostic approaches seem totally discordant (Mc Nemar test (p < 0.0001).

On 30 samples inoculated on NNN medium and rabbit serum (20 from haemocultures and 10 from ganglionic juice), only one strain could evolve normally and be identified as belonging to the MON-1 zymodeme. The reference for the isolated strain is: MCAN/DZ/2007/LIPA 5207.

Keywords:Canine Leishmaniasis; Dogs; IFI Diagnosis; PCR; Kabylie; Algeria

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Citation: Mouloua A., et al. “Epidemiological Situation of Canine Leishmaniosis in Kabylia”. EC Veterinary Science 5.10 (2020): 116-131.

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