Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 3 - 2020
Arsenic Soil Contamination from Poultry Farm Waste Material
Loborec Jelena, Zavrtnik Saša*, Dogančić Dragana and Herega Valentina
Geotehnički Fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Hallerova Aleja, Varaždin, Croatia
*Corresponding Author: Zavrtnik Saša, Geotehnički Fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Hallerova Aleja, Varaždin, Croatia.
Received: January 20, 2020; Published: February 14, 2020


Agriculture has a strong environmental impact in terms of potential soil and water pollution. Poultry production is a significant branch of livestock production in the Republic of Croatia, and because of the increased need for food production, the production process is constantly intensified, which involves various manipulations in order to maximize yield. The main goal of this paper is to examine the presence of arsenic in the environment as a direct consequence of the disposal of poultry farm waste. Specifically, there has been a trend of increasing arsenic concentration in the soil, which is related to the use of roxarson, the most famous growth promoter and a pigmentation agent in the poultry industry, containing arsenic. More recently, emphasis has been placed on research for the consequences of its use. In this paper, soil arsenic content was investigated in one part of Varaždin County in the immediate vicinity of a poultry farm. Sampling locations were selected so that all tests would be performed on the same soil type and that the difference in arsenic content could be interpreted and matched to different levels of contamination from farm waste, that is, chicken manure.

Keywords: Arsenic; Roxarson; Poultry Farm; Nitrate Nitrogen; Soil


  1. Statistički ljetopis RH (2017).
  2. P Girardin., et al. “Assessment of potential impacts of agricultural practices on the environment: the AGRO∗ECO method”. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20 (2000): 227-239.
  3. Hayo M., et al. “Evaluation of the environmental impact of agriculture at the farm level: a comparison and analysis of 12 indicator-based methods”. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93.1-3 (2002): 131-145.
  4. M de Vries and IJM de Boer. “Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: a review of life cycle assessments”. Livestock Science 128 (2010): 1-11.
  5. Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser. "Meat and Dairy Production" (2020).
  6. Maeve Henchion., et al. “Meat consumption: Trends and quality matters”. Meat Science 98.3 (2014): 561-568.
  7. Proizvodnja peradi i mesa peradi u porastu. 
  8. P Haramija., et al. “Mogućnosti proizvodnje hrane-prijeteći problemi i nužni koraci”. Obnovljeni život 68.3 (2013): 399-416.
  9. Grgić I., et al. “Production and supply balance of poultry meat in Croatia”. Agriculture 21/1 (2015): 82-88.
  10. Gospodarski list: Hranidba peradi, Dostupno na. Datum pristupa (2017).
  11. Varenina I., et al. “Rezidue kokcidiostatika u proizvodima animalnog podrijetla nakon primjene u peradi”. Veterinarska Stanica 48.6 (2017): 451-463.
  12. Takele Beyene. “Veterinary Drug Residues in Food-animal Products: Its Risk Factors and Potential Effects on Public Health”. Veterinary Science and Technology 7.1 (2016). 
  13. Periša M and Babić S. “Farmaceutici u okolišu”. Kem Ind 65.9-10 (2016): 471-482.
  14. Zhang Yumei ., et al. “Arsenic Accumulation in Two Vegetables Grown in Soils Amended with Arsenic-Bearing Chicken Manures”. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43.12 (2012): 1732-1742.
  15. Nanthi Bolan., et al. “Distribution and Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Livestock and Poultry Manure By-Products”. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 34.3 (2004): 291-338. 
  16. Shah Md Golam Gousul Azam., et al. “Factors affecting the soil arsenic bioavailability, accumulation in rice and risk to human health: a review”. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 26.8 (2016): 565-579.
  17. FT Jones. “A Broad View of Arsenic”. Poultry Science 86 (2007): 2-14.
  18. Rod O'Connor., et al. “Transformations, Air Transport, and Human Impact of Arsenic from Poultry Litter”. Environmental Forensics 6.1 (2005): 83-89.
  19. Službeni vjesnik Varaždinske županije 7 (2002). 
  20. Vincek D and Ernoić M. “Nitrate directive and agircultural production in Varaždin County”. Stočarstvo 63.4 (2009): 309-316.
  21. Romić D and i suradnici. “Utjecaj poljoprivrede na onečišćenje površinskih i podzemnih voda u Republici Hrvatskoj”. Sveučilište u Zagrebu Agronomski fakultet Zagreb (2014).
  22. JC Ryden., et al. “Nitrate leaching from grassland”. Nature 311 (1984): 50-53.
  23. Carolyn C., et al. “Estimating the Availability of Nitrogen in Poultry Manure through Laboratory and Field Studies”. Journal of Environmental Quality 17.1 (1988): 47-54.
  24. ATTRA, the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, USA: Arsenic in Poultry Litter-Organic Regulations (2005). 
  25. BP Jackson., et al. “ Trace Element Speciation in Poultry Litter”. Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract-Heavy Metals in the Environment 32.2 (2003): 535-540.
  26. S Burgos and SA Burgos. “Environmental approaches to poultry feed formulation and management”. International Journal of Poultry Science (2006): 900-904.
  27. Media Statement. Pfizer to suspend sale of 3-Nitro (Roxarsone) in the United States (2011).
  28. Pikija M., et al. “Osnovna Geološka karta Republike Hrvatske”. Hrvatski geološki institut Zagreb (2015).
  29. Yuefei Ji., et al. “Degradation of roxarsone in a sulfate radical mediated oxidation process and formation of polynitrated by-products”. The Royal Society of Chemistry (2016): 82040-82048. 
  30. K-L Chen., et al. “Effect of roxarsone inclusion in the diet on the performance and hepatic lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya duck”. British Poultry Science 41:3, (2000): 363-369. 
  31. Uriel Arroyo-Abad., et al. “Identification of roxarsone metabolites produced in the system: Soil-chlorinated water light by using HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS)”. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 26 (2011): 171. 
  32. O'Connor R i sur. “Transformations, Air Transport, and Human Impact of Arsenic from Poultry Litter”. Environmental Forensics 6 (2005): 83-89.
  33. Shelver WL. “Generation of antibody and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for the feed additive roxarsone”. Food and Agricultural Immunology 22.2 (2011): 171-184.
  34. Nachman K.E., et al. “Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample”. Environmental Health Perspectives 121.7 (2013): 818-824.
  35. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Arsenic and arsenic compounds. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Hum 100C (2012): 41-93. 
  36. Vhahangwele Masindi and Khathutshelo L. Muedi: Environmental Contamination by Heavy Metals (2018): 115-133.
  37. Liu Y., et al. “Response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient”. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 52.9 (2017): 819-827.
  38. Huang LX., et al. “Uptake of arsenic species by turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure”. Food Additives and Contaminants 30.9 (2013): 1546-1555.
  39. Cohen SM., et al. “Methylated arsenicals: the implications of metabolism and carcinogenicity studies in rodents to human risk assessment”. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 36 (2006): 99-133.
  40. Yumei Z., et al. “Arsenic Accumulation in Two Vegetables Grown in Soils Amended with Arsenic-Bearing Chicken Manures”. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43.12 (2006): 1732-1742.
  41. WHO (World Health Organization). Environmental Health Criteria 224. Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds, II edit., World Health Organization, Geneva (2001).
  42. Voigt DE and Brantley SL. “Chemical fixation of arsenic in contaminated soils”. Applied Geochemistry 11 (1996): 633-643. 
  43. Halamić J and Miko S. (ur.) “Geokemijski atlas Republike Hrvatske”. Hrvatski geološki institut, Zagreb (2009).
  44. Pongratz R. “Arsenic Speciation in Environmental Samples of Contaminated Soil”. Science of The Total Environment 224 (1998): 133-141.
  45. Lewen N. “The use of atomic spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical industry for the determination of trace elements in pharmaceuticals”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2011.55 (2011): 653- 661.
  46. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.” 21st edition, American Public Health Association, American WaterWorks Association, Water Environment Federation, 541 str (1995).
  47. Mutavdžić Pavlović D. “Fizikalna i kemijska svojstva tla i njihovo određivanje, Interna skripta Fakulteta kemijskog inženjerstva i tehnologije”. Sveučilište u Zagrebu, 31 str (2010).
  48. Škorić A. “Priručnik za pedološka istraživanja, Fakultet poljoprivrednih znanosti”. Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb (1982). 
  49. RHS Flower Shows. Chicken manure (2019). 
  50. Nitratna direktiva. Hrvatske vode Nitratna direktiva (91/676/EEC) (1991).
  51. Vukadinović V and i Vukadinović V. “Ishrana bilja, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku” (2011).
  52. Hooda PS. “Trace elements in soils”. John Wiley and Sons, United Kingdom, (2010): 596.
  53. Avramidis P., et al. “Total Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Sediments and Soils: A Comparison of the Wet Oxidation-Titration Method with the Combustion-Infrared Method”. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 4 (2015): 425-430.
  54. Vukobratović M., et al. “Promjene kemijskih svojstava stajskih gnojiva pri kompostiranju”. (2008). 
  55. Epstein E. “The science of composting. Technomic Publishing Company”. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA (1997): 487.
  56. Miko S., et al. “Geochemical Baseline Mapping of Soils Developed on Diverse bedrock from Two Regions in Croatia”. Geologia Croatica 54/1 (2001): 60-118.
Citation: Zavrtnik Saša., et al. “Arsenic Soil Contamination from Poultry Farm Waste Material”. EC Nutrition 5.3 (2020): 01-12.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.