Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 3 - 2020
Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Ovine Lung Worm Infection in Debrebirhan Town, Ethiopia
Gebremedhin Yohannes* and Desta Kifle
1Hawassa University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Gebremedhin Yohannes, Hawassa University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia.
Received: August 12, 2019; Published: February 07, 2020




Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2018 to April, 2019 in and around Debre Birhan town with the objectives of determining the prevalence of ovine lungworm infection in sheep, identifying the species of the lungworm circulating in the area and assessing possible risk factors of lungworm infection in sheep in the study area. From 300 fecal samples collected, 93 (31%) were found to be positive for ovine lungworm by modified Bearmann technique. Out of the 93 (31%) ovine lungworm, 60(20%) were infected by Dictyocaulus filaria, 15(5.33%) were by Muellerius capillaries, 10(3.33%) were by dictyocaulus filaria and Muellerius capillaries and 7 (2.33%) were Protostrongylus rufescens. Among the potential risk factors, management system (X2 = 10.335, P = 0.001), body condition (X2 = 13.392, P = 0.001), breed types (X2 = 9.808, P = 0.007) and deworming (X2 =10.777, P = 0.001) were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of ovine lungworm infection. The highest prevalence of ovine lungworm infection was found in sheep with poor body condition 47(43.1%). The prevalence of lungworms in extensive and semi-intensive managements system was 37.9% and 20.3% respectively. The prevalence of lungworms in dewormed and non-dewormed sheep, were found to be 19.6% and 37.8%, respectively. On the other hand, age (X2 = 1.26, P = 0.533) and sex (X2 = 0.196, P = 0.658) were not statistically significant with the occurrence of the lungworm infection in this study. Therefore, due to its great impact on production of sheep in general as a country, emphasis should be given to regular and strategic de-worming to control and prevent parasitic infection and further study should be conducted in future to identify the temporal pattern of ovine lungworm infection.

Keywords: Debre Birhan; Fecal Examination; Prevalence; Lungworm; Risk Factors; Sheep

References

  1. CSA (Central Statistics Authority), The federal democratic republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency Agricultural Sample Survey 2009/2010. Report on area and production of major crops, statistical bulletin. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (2010): 221.
  2. Selam T., et al. “Ovine Lung Worm Infection and Associated Risk Factors in and Around Wukro, Eastern Tigray Ethiopia”. European Journal of Biological Sciences 7.3 (2015): 120-124.
  3. Bogale B., et al. “Ovine lungworm infection: Prevalence, species composition and associated risk factors in Dessie Zuria district, Northern Ethiopia”. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 4.3 (2012): 73-76.
  4. Ibrahim N and Godefa Y. “Prevalence of Ovine Lung Worm Infection in Mekelle Town, North Ethiopia”. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine 9.1 (2012): 1-15.
  5. Tibbo M. “Productivity and Health of Indigenous Sheep breeds and crossbreds in the Central Ethiopian Highlands. In PhD Thesis”. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (2006): 17.
  6. Asaye M and Alemneh T. “Prevalence of Lungworm Infection of Small Ruminants in and Around Bahir Dar City, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 12.2 (2015): 60-70.
  7. Tefera Y and Mekuria S. “Lungworm Infection in Ovine: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Debre Birhan Town Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 7.2 (2016): 2157-7579. 
  8. Bekele T and Shibbiru T. “Prevalence of ovine lungworm and its associated risk factors in and around Debre Birhan town, Ethiopia”. Internet Journal of Veterinary Health Science and Research 5.6 (2017): 190-195. 
  9. Merck Veterinary Manual. "Lungworm Infection: Introduction". The Archived from the original on (2006): 2007-12-18. 
  10. Radostitis O., et al. “A textbook of diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats”. (10th edition), St. Louis, Philadelphia, London (2007): 1568- 1569.
  11. Mandal S. “Veterinary Parasitology at a Glance”. (2nd edition), IBDCO, India (2006): 254-258. 
  12. Abebe R., et al. “Lungworm Infection in Small Ruminants in and Around Wolaita Soddo Town, Southern Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 7.2 (2016): 302.
  13. Borji H., et al. “Study on small ruminant lungworms and associated risk factors in northeastern Iran”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 5.11 (2012): 853-856.
  14. Kebede S., et al. “On farm and Abattoir study of Lungworm infection of small ruminants in selected areas of Dale District, Southern Ethiopia”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 3.4 (2014): 1139-1152.
  15. Tewodros A. “A Review on: Lungworm Infection in Small Ruminants”. Journal of World Pharmaceutical Life Science 1.3 (2015): 149-159. 
  16. Jemal A. “Lungworm infection of small ruminant in Ethiopia: A Review”. World journal of pharmaceutical and life sciences 2.3 (2016): 22-25.
  17. Kahn M. “The Merck Veterinary Manual. (9th edition), Washington Merck and Co. Inc, USA (2005): 55-67.
  18. Junquera P. Protostrongylus Rufescens, parasitic lungworms of Sheep and Goats. Biology, prevention and control Protostrongylosis (2015). 
  19. Kassa T and Abdu M. “Prevalence of Ovine Lung Worms- around Bahir Dar, East Africa, Ethiopia”. Acta Parasitologica Globalis 4.3 (2013): 71-79.
  20. Thrusfield M. “Veterinary epidemiology”. (2nd Edition), Black well science, UK (2005): 182-189.
  21. Urquhart G., et al. “Veterinary parasitology. (2nd Edition), black well science, Scotland (2006): 39-58. 
  22. COWS (Control of Worms Sustainably), Control of lungworm in cattle (2014). 
  23. Taylor M., et al. “Parasite of Respiratory System”. In Veterinary Parasitology (3rd edition), UK: Black Well (2007): 195-198.
  24. Elshei H and Khan N. “Essentials of Veterinary Parasitology”. (1st edition), Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK (2011): 52-69.
  25. Tefera S. “Prevalence of ovine lungworms around Dessie and Kombolicha, DVM Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit Ethiopia. (Unpublished) 10 (1993).
  26. Mekonnen A., et al. “Study on the Prevalence of Lungworm Infection in Small Ruminants in Gondar Town, Ethiopia”. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 10.3 (2011): 1683-1687.
  27. Fantahun T., et al. “Prevalence of lungworm infection in small ruminants in and around Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia”. Global Veterinaria 9 (2012): 580-585.
  28. Beyene D., et al. “The prevalence of lungworms in naturally infected sheep of Ambo District, Oromia, Ethiopia”. Global veternaria 10.1 (2013): 93-98.
  29. Alemu S., et al. “Study on small ruminant lungworms in northeastern Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 142.3-4 (2006): 330335.
  30. Regassa A., et al. “Lungworm infection in small ruminants: prevalence and associated risk factors in Dessie and Kombolicha districts, Northeastern Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 169.1-2 (2010): 144-148.
  31. Niguagus L., et al. “Ovine Lung Worm Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Merhabete District, North Shoa, Ethiopia”. Journal of Bacteriology and Parasitology 7.6 (2016): 298.
  32. Abebe M., et al. “Prevalence and Identification of Ovine Lungworms in and Around Asella Town, central Ethiopia”. American-Eurasian Journal of Science and Research 9.5 (2014): 136-142.
  33. Eyob E and Matios L. “The prevalence and risk factors associated with ovine lungworm infestation in the Asella province, Central Ethiopia”. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 5.8 (2013): 116-121.
  34. Mihreteab B and Aman A. “Ovine Lungworms in Tiyo District, South- East Ethiopia: Prevalence, Effect of Altitude and Major Host Related Risk Factors”. Global Veterinaria 7.3 (2011): 219-225.
  35. Mengistom G. “Preliminary study on prevalence ovine lungworm infection in Atsbi (Tigray). DVM Thesis, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia (2008): 112-178.
  36. Muluken B. “Prevalence of ovine lung warm in. and around Bahir Dar”. DVM Thesis, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia (2009): 76-169.
  37. Tewodros A. “Prevalence of lungworm infection of small ruminants in and around Bahir DVM Thesis, Gondar University, Gondar, Ethiopia (2010): 88-99.
  38. Weldesenebet D and Mohammed A. “Prevalence of Small Ruminant Lung Worm Infection in Jimma town”. Global Veterinaria 8.2 (2012): 153-159.
  39. Garomssa T., et al. “Lungworms of Small Ruminants Slaughtered in Restaurants of Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia”. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 33.1 (2012): 387-394.
  40. Basaznew B., et al. “Ovine Lungworm Infection: Prevalence, Species Composition and Associated Risk Factors in Dessie Zuria District, Northeastern Ethiopia”. African Journal of Basic Applied Science 4.3 (2012): 73-76.
  41. Hasen A., et al. “Ovine lungworm infestation rate on faecal larvae recovery basis”. Acta Parasitologica Globalis 4.1 (2013): 29-33.
  42. Gebreyohannes M., et al. “Prevalence of Ovine Lungworms in Mekedella Woreda, Ethiopia”. Journal of Animal Production Advance 3.6 (2013): 208-214.
  43. Moges N., et al. “Dictyocaulus filaria and Muellerius capillaries are important lungworm parasites of sheep in Wogera district, Northern Ethiopia 3 (2011):465-468.
  44. Craig T. “Epidemiology of internal parasites: Effect of climate and host reproductive cycles on parasite survival”. Proceedings of the Small Ruminants for the Mixed Animal Practitioner, Western Veterinary Conference, Las Vegas (1998): 114-127.
  45. Terefe Y., et al. “Prevalence of lungworm infection in small ruminants in North Gondar zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia”. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 5.4 (2013): 40-45.
  46. Yimer A and Desie A. “Epidemiological Studies on Ovine Lungworm Species in Northern Ethiopia”. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 7.6 (2016): 2157-7579. 
  47. Soulsby E. “Helminthes, arthropods and protozoa of domestic animals”. (7th Edition), Lea and Fediger, Philadelphia (1986): 262-266.
Citation: Gebremedhin Yohannes and Desta Kifle. “Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Ovine Lung Worm Infection in Debrebirhan Town, Ethiopia”. EC Nutrition 5.3 (2020): 01-12.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 06, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk