Review Article
Volume 5 Issue 3 - 2020
Calcium and Phosphorus: Backbone of Camel Health - A Review
Farrah Deeba1, Anas Sarwar Qureshi2* and Rida Asrar3
1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Anatomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Professor, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Received: December 26, 2019; Published: February 29, 2020


In dromedary camels requirements of macrominerals are not well known. Calcium and phosphorus are integral minerals to many vital body functions in camels. This review attempts to apprehend the precise studies on calcium and phosphorus till present day.

Keywords: Calcium; Phosphorus; Camel


  1. Underwood EJ and NF Suttle. “The mineral nutrition of livestock”. Moredun Research Institute, Pentland Science Park, bush loan, Penicuit, Midlothian EH26 OPZ (1999). 
  2. McDowell LR. "Detection of mineral status of grazing ruminants”. Nutrition of grazing ruminants in warm climates (1985): 291-315. 
  3. Technical Committee On Response to Nutrients, TCORN. Report No. 6. “A preappraisal of the calcium and phosphorus requirements of sheep and cattle”. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 61 (1991): 573-612. 
  4. Ahmed Aichouni., et al. "Mineral indices in Algerian camels (Camelus dromedarius): effect of season”. Camel 1.1 (2013): 29. 
  5. Snow DHA Billah and A Ridha. "Effects of maximal exercise on the blood composition of the racing camel”. The Veterinary record 123.12 (1988): 311-312. 
  6. Karn James F. "Phosphorus nutrition of grazing cattle: a review”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 89.3-4 (2001): 133-153. 
  7. Knoess KH., et al. “Milk production potential of the dromedary with special reference to the province of Punjab, Pakistan”. World Animal Review (FAO) (1986). 
  8. Alwan Obied A and Hakem B Zwaik. "Milk composition of Libyan Maghrebi camels (Camels Dromedaries) reared under farm and desert conditions”. Proceedings of International Conference on Chemical, Environment and Biological Sciences (CEBS-2014) (2014). 
  9. Abu-Lehia IH. "Composition of camel milk”. Milchwissenschaft Milk Science International 42 (1987): 368. 
  10. Patodkar VR., et al. “Influence of Sex on certain biochemical parameters in Nomadic Camels (Camelus dromedarius) nearby Pune, in Maharashtra”. Veterinary World 3.3 (2010): 115. 
  11. Patel AG., et al. “Physiological status of some serum macro-minerals in kutchi camel during different stages of lactation”. Journal of Animal Health and Production 5.4 (2017): 176-180. 
  12. Bogin E. "Clinical pathology of Camelides: present and future”. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 151.7 (2000): 563-568. 
  13. Eltahir Yassmin Elhag., et al. "Serum mineral contents of the Omani racing Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius)”. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9.4 (2010): 764-770. 
  14. Osman TEA and KA Al-Busadah. "Normal concentrations of twenty serum biochemical parameters of she-camels, cows and ewes in Saudi Arabia”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 6.14 (2003): 1253-1256. 
  15. Mohamed HA and AN Hussein. "Studies on normal haematological and serum biochemical values of the ‘Hijin’racing camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kuwait”. Veterinary Research Communications 23.4 (1999): 241-248. 
  16. Konuspayeva Gaukhar., et al. "Physiological change in camel milk composition (Camelus dromedarius) 1. Effect of lactation stage”. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42.3 (2010): 495-499. 
  17. Konuspayeva Gaukhar., et al. "Variation factors of some minerals in camel milk”. Impact of pollution on animal products. Springer, Dordrecht (2008): 125-132. 
  18. Aichouni A., et al. “Breed variation in blood constituents of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria”. Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010): 19-25. 
  19. Barakat MZ and Moustafa Abdel‐Fattah. "Seasonal and sexual variations of certain constituents of normal camel blood”. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin Reihe 18.2 (1971): 174-178. 
  20. Goumi M Ben., et al. "Water restriction and bone metabolism in camels”. Reproduction Nutrition Development 36.5 (1996): 545-554. 
  21. Heuer Cord and Eckart Bode. "Variation of serum inorganic phosphorus and association with haemoglobinuria and osteomalacia in female water buffaloes in Pakistan”. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 33.1-4 (1998): 69-81. 
  22. Zhang DZ Liu and Q Zhang. "Studies on rickets in police dogs”. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University 3 (1989): 324-327. 
  23. Scott D., et al. “Effects of acute acid loading on parathyroid hormone secretion and on urinary calcium and cAMP excretion in the growing lamb”. Experimental Physiology: Translation and Integration 78.2 (1993): 157-163. 
  24. Gerros TC. "Recognizing and treating urolithiasis in llamas”. Veterinary medicine, Edwardsville, Kan. (USA) (1998). 
  25. Kock RA. "Obstructive urethral calculi in the male camel: report of two cases”. The Veterinary Record 117.19 (1985): 494-496. 
  26. Aytekin I and A Kalinbacak. "The levels of calcium, phosphor, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron in calves eating soil in the region of Afyon”. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 6.1 (2011): 95-96. 
  27. Kachhawah Subhash Khem Chand and BL Jangid. "Health problems and their management in camel herds of southern Rajasthan”. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 20.1 (2013): 113-120. 
  28. Singh Raghvendar., et al. "Camel milk: an important natural adjuvant”. Agricultural Research 6.4 (2017): 327-340. 
  29. Onjoro PA., et al. “Effects of mineral supplementation on milk yield of free-ranging camels (Camelus dromedarius) in northern Kenya”. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 19.11 (2006): 1597-1602. 
  30. Hussain R. “Morphological and functional characteristics of the testis of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan”. Dissertation, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan (2010). 
  31. Al-Juboori AT., et al. “Nutritional and medicinal value of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk”. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 170 (2013): 221-232. 
  32. Nikkhah A. "Equidae, camel and yak milks as functional foods: a review”. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 1.5 (2011): 1. 
  33. Mostafidi Mahdieh., et al. "Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran”. Food Science and Technology 36.4 (2016): 717-723. 
  34. Onjoro Paul Athans., et al. “Effected on Mineral Status on Milk Production of Free-ranging Somali Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) in Northern Kenya” (2004). 
  35. Dereje Moges and Peter Udén. "The browsing dromedary camel: II. Effect of protein and energy supplementation on milk yield”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 121.3-4 (2005): 309. 
  36. GfE. “Recommendations for the supply of energy and nutrients to goats” (2003): 66-89. 
  37. Al-Juboori and JJ Korian. Technical Report, Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority Development Sector, Research and Development Division (2012). 
  38. Abdalmula AM., et al. “Blood profile in normal dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) camels in Libya. Part 3:Effect of sex variation on biochemical and haematological blood profile”. International Journal of Science: Basic and Applied Research 48.1 (2019): 9-24. 
  39. Fraser MC., et al. “The Merck Veterinary Manual, Seventh Edition”. Merck and Co, Inc. Rahway, NJ, USA (1991). 
  40. Abu Damir H. “Studies on mineral status in animals and pasture plants in the Butana with special reference to toxicity of Heliotropion ovalifolium and Ipomoea in small ruminants”, M. V.Sc Thesis, University of Khartoum (1980). 
  41. Abu Damir H., et al. “Clinical and subclinical colloid goiter in adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Kordofan region of the Sudan”. The British Veterinary Journal 146 (1990): 219-227. 
Citation: Anas Sarwar Qureshi., et al. “Calcium and Phosphorus: Backbone of Camel Health - A Review”. EC Nutrition 5.3 (2020): 01-09.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.