Research Article
Volume 8 Issue 1 - 2020
Studies on Formulation Development, In-vitro and Ex-vivo Characterization of Ion-Activated Ophthalmic In-situ Gel Containing Moxifloxacin Nanoparticles
Nagaraju R1*, Vanaja CH1 and Abdul Wahid Ambekar2
1Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam (Women’s University), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Dr. Vithalrao Vikhe Patil Foundation’s College of Pharmacy, Vadgaon Gupta (Vilad Ghat) PO MIDC, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
*Corresponding Author: Nagaraju R, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam (Women’s University), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Received: November 22, 2019; Published: December 06, 2019


Development of ion-activated ophthalmic in-situ gel containing moxifloxacin nanoparticles for better control of the release of the drug, minimize the dosing frequency and to improve the efficacy. Moxifloxacin nanoparticles were prepared by anti-solvent evaporation technique by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Poloxomer 407 and Eudragit® RSPO. Prepared nanoparticles were loaded into the ion-activated in-situ gelling system (Sodium alginate) which undergoes phase transition from sol- gel in the presence of mono or divalent ions in the physiological conditions. The prepared in-situ gel formulations were evaluated for clarity, pH, gelling capacity, rheological properties, in-vitro drug release studies, ex-vivo corneal permeation studies, anti-microbial activity and histopathological studies. The PF3 formulation showed good gelling capacity with high % drug content. Rheological properties were acceptable for PF3 formulation when compared with the other formulations and in-vitro, ex-vivo release studies showed that the drug release was sustained and 65%, 62.04% was released in 4 hrs. Anti-microbial activity indicates that moxifloxacin nanoparticle loaded ophthalmic in-situ gel showed greater zone of inhibition when compared with the pure drug. Histopathological study revealed that there was no morphological difference between the formulations treated cornea and the healthy cornea. Hence can be concluded that formulation PF3 developed in the present study can be the successful replacement of conventional ophthalmic solutions.

Keywords: Moxifloxacin; PVA; Eudragit® RSPO; In-situ Gel; Anti-microbial Activity; Histopathological Study


  1. Rajesh K and Tanvi T. “Preparation and evaluation of nanoparticle loaded ophthalmic in-situ gel”. Drug Delivery 7 (2016): 2363-2370.
  2. Kirti M and Shashikant D. “In-situ gels-a novel approach for ocular drug delivery”. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 8 (2014): 317-333.
  3. Snehal N and Gauri D. “In-situ gel: application and uses of polymers”. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 7 (2016): 1638-1658.
  4. Anand PG., et al. “Thermosensitive in-situ gel for ocular delivery of Lomefloxacin”. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research 2 (2016): 95-105.
  5. Nagarwal R and Kumar R. “Modified PLA nano in-situ gel: a potential ophthalmic drug delivery system”. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 1 (2011): 28-35.
  6. Diaboyalochan M and Vasudha B. “A review on in-situ gel: A novel drug delivery system”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 11 (2018): 175-181.
  7. Aijaz AS and Sajid RS. “Development and characterization of novel in-situ gel of moxifloxacin hydrochloride”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics 3 (2017): 616-624.
  8. Sonjoy M and Manjunath KMJT. “Formulation and evaluation of an in-situ gel forming ophthalmic formulation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 2 (2012): 78-82.
  9. Qiongyu G and Ahmed AOS. “Moxifloxacin in-situ gelling microparticles- bioadhesive delivery system”. Results in Pharma Sciences 2 (2012): 66-71.
  10. Makwana SB., et al. “Development and characterization of in-situ gel for ophthalmic formulation containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride”. Results in Pharma Sciences 6 (2016): 1-6.
  11. Laddha UD and Mahajan HS. “An insight to ocular in-situ gelling system”. International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Research 2 (2017): 31-40.
  12. Harpreet K and Sharnjeet L. “Formulation and evaluation of in-situ ocular gel of gatifloxacin”. International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences 5 (2016): 1365-1370.
Citation: Nagaraju R., et al. “Studies on Formulation Development, In-vitro and Ex-vivo Characterization of Ion-Activated Ophthalmic In-situ Gel Containing Moxifloxacin Nanoparticles". EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 8.1 (2020): 01-14.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for October Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the November issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before October 07, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to