Volume 2 Issue 6 - 2015
Marine Toxins: A New Tool Against the Diseases
Andres Crespo*
King’s College London, UK
*Corresponding Author: Andres Crespo, King’s College London, UK.
Received: December 28, 2016; Published: December 30, 2016
Citation: Andres Crespo. “Marine Toxins: A New Tool Against the Diseases”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2.6 (2016): 277-278.
The different species of microscopic planktonic algae are the principal sustenance for filter-feeding organisms – mainly bivalve shellfish – and also constitute an important food source for some crustaceans and fishes. There are about 5000 known marine algal species and approximately 300 of them can grow disproportionately, producing the so-called Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), which are also known as ‘red tides’, because the discoloration of the water. This excessive growth has diverse severe effects. The microalgae can form a dense surface layer, which can lead to oxygen depletion, causing the death of fish and invertebrates.
Additionally, some species can produce potent toxins (named phycotoxins) that rarely affect to filter-feeding species, but which can bio-accumulate through the food chain, being consumed by animals and finally by human beings. There are two different classifications of the marine toxins: by their structure and by the symptoms observed in experimental animals and in human beings.
The symptomatology produced by the consumption of intoxicated seafood (and less frequently by intoxicated fishes), is very varied. The most frequent effects are gastrointestinal illness (diarrhoea, nausea or abdominal cramps), although neurological and cardiovascular alterations can be also produced by several phycotoxins.
Even a small group of phycotoxins is able to produce the death after the consumption of contaminated seafood. This is the case of the domoic acid, the main constituent of the Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning group, which is responsible for several neurological alterations (including the loss of short-term memory, effect which gives the name to this group), and in the year 1987 it produced the death of four people.
The interest of both the scientific community and the media in marine toxins has increased through the last years. This interest might be due to the major frequency of the HABs or the important health and economic repercussions of the HABs in some economies through the world, such as the seafood production of Japan, Spain, Chile Ireland or Canada.
Nevertheless, in spite of the repercussion of the marine toxins in the health of the human beings, some scientists have started different research lines trying to elucidate not the pernicious effects of their consumption, but trying to use these phycotoxins for the benefit of human health.
Because, what is essentially a toxin? A toxin is only a compound (naturally or artificially produced), able to provoke some kind of injury or a damage in a living organism. Therefore, a toxin is an active compound and it is possible that it may cause some useful effects.
That is the idea of some research groups, to study their effects by different ways (employing in vitro and in vivo assays), in order to demonstrate the potential use of these natural products. These beneficial effects are very varied, comprising anti-bacterial or anti-viral activities.
The yessotoxin, a marine compound able to produce important injuries in heart with important cardiovascular alterations, has been observed to have anti-allergic activities. Other phycotoxins are involved in anti-neoplastic activities, with the advantage that in the cancer treatment many side-effects are accepted in order to obtain results fighting against this illness.
Even some illness with a high complexity, such as Alzheimer’s disease, can be liable to be treated with marine compounds or its derivatives. An example is the potential use of gambierol, a ciguatoxin, or its derivatives in the treatment of this illness. The gambierol is a neurotoxin and it has been discovered that it is able to attenuate the amyloid-β and tau pathology, two of the main characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. Other example is the employment of marine products in the treatment of infectious diseases, like the AIDS. Some algal polysaccharides are able to inhibit the penetration of HIV into human mononuclear cells, give us a new weapon against an illness which affects to almost 40 million people.
Additionally, some phycotoxins are such highly active compounds that the same toxin might be useful in the treatment of different illness. The yessotoxin I have cited previously can be useful not only in the treatment of the allergy, but it also exhibits an anti-tumoral activity. Other important advantage is the origin of these chemical compounds. The natural production of the phycotoxins would be useful when an important effect is discovered.
Research in marine compounds, and concretely the research in phycotoxins, is a fertile field in the future. Not only to understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds can be useful in order to avoid their pernicious effects in human health. Their potential use in the treatment of many illness might be an important area which should be taken into account in the coming years.
Copyright: © 2016 Andres Crespo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We Always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released February issue for the respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

E-Cronicon delightfully welcome all the authors around the globe for an effective collaboration with an article submission for the March issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 03, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

E-Cronicon honours with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

E-Cronicon certify the Editors for their first review done towards assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

Latest articles will be updated immediately in the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

Prime moto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation in order to avoid the inconvenience. For an immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk