Research Article
Volume 8 Issue 2 - 2020
Evaluation of Toxic Effect of Hydro-Methanolic Root Extract of Myrica salicifolia A. Rich (Myricaceae) on Brain, Heart, Spleen and Blood Parameters in Swiss Albino Mice
Bahiru Tenaw Goshu1*, Abebe Muche Moges1, Abyot Endale Gurmu2 and Engidaw Fentahun Enyew1
1Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
1Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Bahiru Tenaw Goshu, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Gondar, Ethiopia.


Received: November 06, 2019; Published: January 30, 2020


Background: Myrica salicifolia A. Rich (Myricaceae) is a routinely used herbal medicinal plant for the treatment of various human diseases such as malaria, inflammation, infections, diabetes mellitus and gastrointestinal spasm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hydro methanolic roots extract of the M. salicifolia toxic effect on brain, heart, spleen and some blood parameters in mice model.

Methods: Roots of M. salicifolia were collected from Gondar area, Northwest Ethiopia. The roots were dried and extracted with methanol. Swiss albino female mice, 25 - 40g weight and 8 - 12 weeks age, were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally and the treated group received the root extract of M. salicifolia by using intragastric tube at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 4 weeks. The hematological analysis was examined. The brain, heart and spleen were removed, stained and examined for histopathological effects. Hematological and histopathological features were compared with the control group.

Results: Most of the hematological parameters and all biochemical parameters of all the treated groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05) as compared to control group. While, the body weight and organ weight changes in tested doses didn’t show any significant difference. Moreover, histopathology examination showed that the extract did not show any toxicity in brain, heart and spleen tissues. Overall, the result of the present study indicated that the plant extract is relatively safe to mice when given orally.

Keywords: Myrica salicifolia; Sub-Acute Toxicity; Histopathology


  1. Saad B., et al. “Tradition and perspectives of Arab herbal medicine: a review”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2.4 (2005): 475-479.
  2. Azaizeh H., et al. “Traditional Arabic and islamic medicine, a re-emerging health aid”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7.4 (2010): 419-424.
  3. Briskin DP. “Medicinal plants and phytomedicines. Linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health”. Plant Physiology 124.2 (2000): 507-514.
  4. Tesema AB., et al. “Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia: identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities” (1993). 
  5. Negash L. “Indigenous trees of Ethiopia: biology, uses and propagation techniques”. Addis Ababa: Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University (1915).
  6. Muthaura CN., et al. “Traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru district of Kenya”. South African Journal of Botany 73.3 (2007): 402-411.
  7. PG Kirira a GMR., et al. “Anti-plasmodial activity and toxicity of extracts of plants used intraditional malaria therapy in Meru and Kilifi Districts of Kenya”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106.403-407 (2006): 113-124.
  8. Lulekal E., et al. “An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, Southeastern Ethiopia”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4.10 (2008): 10.
  9. Balemie K., et al. “Indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and threats in Fentalle area, Eastern Shewa, Ethiopia”. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences 3.1 (2004): 37-58.
  10. Giday M., et al. “Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical study”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124.3 (2009): 513-521.
  11. Clark JD., et al. “The 1996 Guide for the Care and use of laboratory animals”. International Laboratory Animal Research 38.1 (1997): 41-48.
  12. OECD. “OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Test number 425: Acute toxicity test up and down procedure”. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris, France (2008): 1-27. 
  13. OECD. “OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Test number 407: repeated doses for 28 days oral toxicity study in rodents”. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris, France (2008): 1-8. 
  14. Mahmood OM., et al. “Learning and memory performances in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana: interactive effects”. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 71.6 (2010): 885-894.
  15. Keogh A., et al. “Sirolimus in de novo heart transplant recipients reduces acute rejection and prevents coronary artery disease at 2 years: a randomized clinical trial”. Circulation 110.17 (2004): 2694-700.
  16. Saelens X., et al. “Toxic proteins released from mitochondria in cell death”. Oncogene 23.16 (2004): 2861.
  17. Wirth-Dzięciołowska E., et al. “Selected blood serum biochemical indicators in twelve inbred strains of laboratory mice”. Animal Science Papers and Reports 27.2 (2009): 159-167.
  18. Hopwood D. “Cell and tissue fixation”. Histochemical Journal 17.4 (1985): 389-442.
  19. Slaoui M and Fiette L. “Histopathology procedures: from tissue sampling to histopathological evaluation”. Drug Safety Evaluation: Springer (2011): 69-82.
  20. Kittel B., et al. “Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice–part two: a joint publication of the RITA1) and NACAD2) groups”. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 55.6 (2004): 413-431.
  21. Teschke R and Eickhoff A. “Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 6 (2015): 72.
  22. Timbrell JA., et al. “Correlation between in vivo and in vitro toxic effects of foreign compounds”. Comparative Haematology International 6.4 (1996): 232-236.
  23. Harizal SN., et al. “Acute toxicity study of the standardized methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa korth in rodent”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131.2 (2010): 404-409.
  24. Rhiouani H., et al. “Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Herniaria glabra in rodents”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 118.3 (2008): 378-386.
  25. Baliga MS., et al. “The evaluation of the acute toxicity and long term safety of hydroalcoholic extract of Sapthaparna (Alstonia scholaris) in mice and rats”. Toxicology Letters 151.2 (2004): 317-326.
  26. Adedapo AA., et al. “Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats”. Veterinary Archives 74.1 (2004): 53-62.
  27. Ukwuani AN., et al. “Toxicological studies of hydromethanolic leaves extract of Grewia crenata”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 4.4 (2012): 245-249.
  28. Dipak Patel SD., et al. “Acute and sub-chronic toxicological evaluation of hydro-methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativumseeds in rodent”. Experimental and Clinical Sciences Journal 11 (2012): 566-575.
  29. Giboney PT. “Mildly elevated liver transaminase levels in the asymptomatic patient”. American Family Physician 71.6 (2005): 1105-1110.
  30. Oyewole OI and Malomo SO. “Toxicological assessment of oral administration of some antisickling agents in rats”. African Journal of Biochemical Research 3.2 (2009): 024-28.
  31. Greger R. “Loop diuretics”. In: Greger R, Knauf H, Mutschler E, editors. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology Diuretics. New York: Springer, (1995): 221-274.
  32. Cameron JS and Greger R. In: Oxford textbook of clinical nephrology. Davison AM, Cameron JS, Grunfeld JP, editors.Renal function and testing of function. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1998): 39-69.
  33. Anwar F., et al. “Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses”. Phytotherapy Research 21.1 (2007): 17-25.
  34. Ojewole JAO. “Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract”. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 27.10 (2005): 689-696.
  35. Umukoro S., et al. “Effect of monosodium glutamate on behavioral phenotypes, biomarkers of oxidative stress in brain tissues and liver enzymes in mice”. World Journal of Neuroscience 5.5 (2015): 339.
  36. KG Kripa DC and J Thanka. “Acute and sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) in experimental rats”. International Journal of Drug Development and Research 3.3 (2011): 339-347.
  37. Li C-Y., et al. “Toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in mice”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48.2 (2010): 620-625.
  38. Oudit GY., et al. “Taurine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and improves cardiovascular function in an iron-overload murine model”. Circulation 109.15 (2004): 1877-1885.
  39. Subramanion L., et al. “Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice”. Molecules 16 (2011): 5269-5282.
  40. Alferah MAZ. “Toxicity induced histological changes in selected organs of male wistar rats by Lawsonia inermis Leaf extract”. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2.2 (2012): 151-158.
Citation: Bahiru Tenaw Goshu. “Evaluation of Toxic Effect of Hydro-Methanolic Root Extract of Myrica salicifolia A. Rich (Myricaceae) on Brain, Heart, Spleen and Blood Parameters in Swiss Albino Mice”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.2 (2020): 01-11.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for October Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the November issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before October 07, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to