Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 2 - 2020
Adverse Cardiovascular Events by Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Malak Alfaifi1, Haneen Almasoudi1, Atheer Al-Zubedi1, Shatha Haroun1, Rawabi Qadhi2,4 and Layla Borham2,3,4*
1Medical Intern, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
4Saudi Toxicology Society, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Layla Borham, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: November 16, 2019; Published: January 30, 2020




Abstract

Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medications widely used to relieve pain and to reduce inflammation. Like any medication, NSAIDs have potentially adverse effects that must be considered with their benefits.

Objective: To overview the cardiovascular adverse events that are associated with using NSAIDs in patients with and without history of cardiovascular diseases, and to identify the patients that are in the highest risk for cardiovascular complications.

Methods: Reviewing the recent literature and studying the related topics; data abstraction and connecting the findings and summarize them.

Results: There is increase in the risk of cardiovascular events associated with the use of NSAIDs. Nonselective and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) NSAIDs are associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events. Celecoxib and rofecoxi are selective COX-2 inhibitors that are responsible for a significant risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events. Some NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen increase the mean arterial pressure in hypertensive patients. The risk of heart failure is doubled by all NSAIDs, and the current users have a higher risk of heart failure than chronic users. Additionally, NSAIDs may induce atrial fibrillation, and the risk is doubled in patients with heart failure.

Conclusion: NSAIDs can cause a lot of cardiovascular adverse events, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and can even lead to death. Therefore, NSAIDs should be used at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration of therapy, especially in the elderly and patients at high risk for an adverse event.

Keywords: NSAIDs; Cardiovascular Effects; COX Inhibitors

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Citation: Layla Borham., et al. “Adverse Cardiovascular Events by Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.2 (2020): 01-10.

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