Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 7 - 2022
Gut Dysbiosis and the Gut-Brain Axis
RE Carlson1, V Koneru2 and JA von Fraunhofer3*
1Executive Director, Research and Analytical Sciences, D. Gary Young Research Institute, Lehi, UT, USA
2Senior Director, Product Development - R&D, Young Living, Lehi, UT, USA
*Corresponding Author: JA von Fraunhofer, Professor Emeritus, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Received: May 14, 2022; Published: June 30, 2022


The bidirectional communication pathway known as the gut-brain axis is discussed with regard to both gut-to-brain and brainto- gut communications. In particular, the influence of the gut microbiota on the development of emotional behavior, stress- and painmodulation systems, as well as brain neurotransmitter systems is reviewed. The literature on the potential role of the gut microbiota on central nervous disorders such as autism and anxiety-depressive behaviors as well as its role in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease is reviewed. The potential contribution of intestinal dysbiosis to psychiatric disorders in patients with bowel disorders is also considered.

The literature on the influence of the brain on gut bacteria, notably disruption of the microbial balance within the gut and promoting inflammatory bowel disease, is discussed. Disturbance of homeostasis within the body and particularly the GI system apparently increases susceptibility to infectious disease and also can trigger a cascade of molecular reactions. These reactions can feed back to the central nervous system and the brain via the gut-brain axis, adversely affect the brain and behavior.

Finally, gut dysbiosis and its health sequalae are reassessed together with the potential benefits derived from ingesting prebiotics and probiotics on gut, brain and systemic health.

Keywords: Gut-Brain Axis; Gut Microbiota; Prebiotics; Probiotics


  1. Cryan JF and Dinan TG. “Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience10 (2012): 701-712.
  2. Mayer EA., et al. “Gut/brain axis and the microbiota”. Journal of Clinical Investigation3 (2015): 926-938.
  3. Carabotti, M., et al. “The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems”. Annals of Gastroenterology2 (2015): 203-209.
  4. Wang HX and Wang YP. “Gut microbiota brain axis”. Chinese Medical Journal 129 (2016): 2373-2380.
  5. Rutsch A., et al. “The gut-brain axis: How microbiota and host inflammasome influence brain physiology and pathology”. Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020): 604179.
  6. Clarke G., et al. “Minireview: Gut microbiota: the neglected endocrine organ”. Molecular Endocrinology8 (2014): 1221-1238.
  7. Bercik P., et al. “The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice”. Gastroenterology2 (2011): 599-609.
  8. Rooks MG and Garrett WS. “Gut microbiota, metabolites and host immunity”. Nature Reviews Immunology6 (2016): 341-352.
  9. Yang T., et al. “The gut microbiota and the brain–gut–kidney axis in hypertension and chronic kidney disease”. Nature Reviews Nephrology 14 (2018): 442-456.
  10. Giau VV., et al. “Gut microbiota and their neuroinflammatory implications in Alzheimer’s Disease”. Nutrients 10 (2018): 1765-1782.
  11. Clark RE. “The classical origins of Pavlov’s conditioning”. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral 39 (2004): 279-294.
  12. Carpenter S. “That gut feeling: Exploring the mind-belly bacteria connection”. Monitor on Psychology 43 (2012): 51-55.
  13. Konturek PC., et al. “Stress and the gut: Pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options”. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology6 (2011): 591-599.
  14. Molina-Torres G., et al. “Stress and the gut microbiota-brain axis”. Behavioural Pharmacology1 (2019): 187-200.
  15. Gao X., et al. “Chronic stress promotes colitis by disturbing the gut microbiota and triggering immune system response”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America13 (2018): E2960-E2969.
  16. Siopi E., et al. “Changes in gut microbiota by chronic stress impair the efficacy of Fluoxetine”. Cell Reports11 (2020): 3682-3690.
  17. Petersen C and Round JL. “Defining dysbiosis and its influence on host immunity and disease”. Cellular Microbiology7 (2014): 1024-1033.
  18. Oligschlaeger Y., et al. “Inflammatory bowel disease: A stressed “gut/feeling”. Cells7 (2019): 659-684.
  19. Tengeler AC., et al. “Relationship between diet, the gut microbiota, and brain function”. Nutrition Reviews 8 (2018): 603-617.
  20. Siopi E., et al. “Changes in gut microbiota by chronic stress impair the efficacy of Fluoxetine”. Cell Reports 11 (2020): 3682-3690.
  21. Lange K., et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota”. Dig Dis 34 (2016): 260-268.
  22. Le Bastard Q., et al. “Systematic review: human gut dysbiosis induced by non-antibiotic prescription medications”. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 47 (2018): 332-345.
  23. Maier L., et al. “Extensive impact of non-antibiotic drugs on human gut bacteria”. Nature 555 (2018): 623-628.
  24. Vangay P., et al. “Antibiotics, pediatric dysbiosis, and disease”. Cell Host and Microbe 5 (2015): 553-564.
  25. Konstantinidis T., et al. “Effects of antibiotics upon the gut microbiome: A review of the literature”. Biomedicines 8 (2020): 502-516.
  26. Duan H., et al. “Antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and barrier disruption and the potential protective strategies”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 6 (2022): 1427-1452.
  27. Fröhlich EE., et al. “Cognitive impairment by antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis: Analysis of gut microbiota-brain communication”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 56 (2016): 140-155.
  28. Warstler A and Bean J. “Antimicrobial-induced cognitive side effects”. Mental Health Clinician 4 (2016): 207-214.
  29. Sakusic A., et al. “Risk factors for persistent cognitive impairment after critical illness, nested case-control study”. Critical Care Medicine 12 (2018): 1977-1984.
  30. Muzambi R., et al. “Common bacterial infections and risk of dementia or cognitive decline: A systematic review”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease4 (2020): 1609-1626.
  31. Jena PK., et al. “Intestinal microbiota remodeling protects mice from Western diet-induced brain inflammation and cognitive decline”. Cells 11 (2022): 504- 519.
  32. Mulak A and Bonaz B. “Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Parkinson's disease”. World Journal of Gastroenterology37 (2015): 10609-10620.
  33. Metchnikoff E. “The Prolongation of Life”. Heinemann, New York (1907).
  34. Eiseman B., et al. “Fecal enema as an adjunct in the treatment of pseudomembranous enterocolitis”. Surgery5 (1958): 854-859.
  36. Brag S and Hansen HJ. “Treatment of ruminal indigestion according to popular belief in Sweden”. Revue Scientifique et Technique2 (1994): 529-535.
  37. Megan C Niederwerder. “Fecal microbiota transplantation as a tool to treat and reduce susceptibility to disease in animals”. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 206 (2018): 65-72.
  38. Khanna S., et al. “Changes in microbial ecology after fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent C. difficile infection affected by underlying inflammatory bowel disease”. Microbiome 5 (2017): 55.
Citation: JA von Fraunhofer., et al. “Gut Dysbiosis and the Gut-Brain Axis”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 10.7 (2022): 50-57.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 14, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.