Research Article
Volume 10 Issue 7 - 2022
Cholinergic Agonists against Covid-19 in Humans. Results from a Randomized Open Label Pilot Trial

Jose-Gabriel Leon1,2, Fabio Restrepo5,6, Mario León7, Mateo Politi8, Fernando Mendive9 and Orlando Angulo3,4*

1Assistant Professor at Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia

2Sports Medicine Department Physician-In-Chief at Hospital San Jose and Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose, Bogota Colombia

3Professor and Researcher at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Villavicencio, Colombia

4Professor at the Continuing Education Department at Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia

5Assistant Professor and Researcher at Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia

6Chief Researcher at Fundación Somos, Bogotá, Colombia

7Independent Researcher, Member of the Fundación Neumológica Colombiana, Bogotá Colombia

8Researcher at University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy

9Independent Researcher, Buenos Aires, Argentina

*Corresponding Author: Orlando Angulo, Professor and Researcher at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Villavicencio, Colombia.
Received: June 20, 2022; Published: June 30, 2022


Background: Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic emerged in December 2019, it has triggered 4.4 million deaths and strained health systems across the world. Yet more than a year and a half since the pandemic emerged, therapeutic drugs to treat COVID-19 disease are limited.

Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic potential of a nicotinic Cholinergic Agonists Mixture (CAM), delivered daily as oral drops and as nasal spray, in alleviating ten common COVID-19 related symptoms in 80 symptomatic human adults with confirmed SARSCoV- 2..

Methods: This randomized open-label pilot trial recruited 80 symptomatic adults with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection after RTPCR+ test less than five days. Participants were recruited from databases of several Colombian hospitals and were randomly assigned to the control group, which received the Standard of Care (SOC) treatment (outpatient treatment), or the intervention group, which received SOC combined with the Cholinergic Agent Mixture (CAM + SOC). Both groups received their treatment for a total of 14 days. The duration of symptoms was compared across the 14-day period.

Results: This study found statistically significant reductions in symptom duration for 5 out of 10 symptoms, including dyspnea (reduction of 4.43 days [95% CI: 2.70; 6.15], p < 0.0001), cough (reduction of 3.18 days [95% CI: 1.29; 5.06], p = 0.0089), cephalea (reduction of 3.13 days [95% CI: 1.53; 4.72], p = 0.0019), muscle fatigue (reduction of 4.18 days [95% CI: 2.03; 6.32], p = 0.0019) and general malaise (reduction of 5.98 days [95% CI: 4.20; 7.76], p < 0.0001).The study found no significant reductions in the duration of the following symptoms: fever, ageusia, anosmia, chest tightness, and nasal congestion.

Conclusion: In comparison to the control group, the intervention group witnessed statistically significant and clinically relevant reductions in the duration of 5 out of 10 common COVID-19 disease symptoms within two weeks.

This includes a reduction of approximately 4.4 days in the duration of dyspnea, a symptom that appears to be strongly correlated to severe COVID-19 disease and admission to Intensive Care Units.

Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and to evaluate whether this specific nicotinic cholinergic agonists mixture could have implications for public health.

Keywords: Cholinergic Agonists; Cholinergic System; COVID-19; Nicotine; Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors; nAChR; SARS-CoV-2; Human Trial; Anti-Inflammatory Cholinergic Pathway; Long Covid; Post-Covid Syndrome


  1. Changeux J-P., et al. “A nicotinic hypothesis for Covid-19 with preventive and therapeutic implications”. Comptes Rendus Biologies 343 (2020): 33-39.
  2. Farsalinos K., et al. “Systematic review of the prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in China: could nicotine be a therapeutic option?” Internal and Emergency Medicine 15 (2020): 845-852.
  3. Mo P., et al. “Clinical characteristics of refractory COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China”. Clinical Infectious Diseases (2020).
  4. Farsalinos K., et al. “Current smoking, former smoking, and adverse outcome among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease 11 (2020): 204062232093576.
  5. Farsalinos K., et al. “Smoking prevalence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and its association with disease severity and mortality: an expanded re-analysis of a recent publication”. Harm Reduction Journal 18 (2021): 10.
  6. Farsalinos K., et al. “Editorial: Nicotine and SARS-CoV-2: COVID-19 may be a disease of the nicotinic cholinergic system”. Toxicology Reports 7 (2020): 658-663.
  7. Gonzalez-Rubio J., et al. “Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) and Nicotine in COVID-19 Patients: Trying to Calm the Storm”. Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020): 10.
  8. Fu L., et al. “Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Journal of Infection 80 (2020): 656-665.
  9. Petrilli CM., et al. “Factors associated with hospital admission and critical illness among 5279 people with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City: prospective cohort study”. BMJ (2020): m1966.
  10. Chow N., et al. “Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 - United States, February 12-March 28, 2020”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69 (2020): 382-386.
  11. González-Rubio J., et al. “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Hospitalised Current Smokers and COVID-19”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (2020): 7394.
  12. Van Westen-Lagerweij NA., et al. “Are smokers protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)? The origins of the myth”. Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 31
    (2021): 10.
  13. Saraiya T., et al. “Implications of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interaction with type-1 macrophages via α7-nAChR”. Qeios (2021).
  14. Lagoumintzis G., et al. “Nicotinic cholinergic system and COVID-19: In silico identification of interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the cryptic epitopes of SARS-Co-V and SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoproteins”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 149 (2021): 10.
  15. Yuan M., et al. “A highly conserved cryptic epitope in the receptor binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV”. Science 368 (2020): 630-633.
  16. Farsalinos K., et al. “Nicotinic Cholinergic System and COVID-19: In Silico Identification of an Interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and Nicotinic Receptors with Potential Therapeutic Targeting Implications”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (2020): 5807.
  17. Cheng MH., et al. “Superantigenic character of an insert unique to SARS-CoV-2 spike supported by skewed TCR repertoire in patients with hyperinflammation”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020): 25254-25262.
  18. Pavlov VA., et al. “The Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway: A Missing Link in Neuroimmunomodulation”. Molecular Medicine 9 (2003): 125-134.
  19. Alexandris N., et al. “Nicotinic cholinergic system and COVID-19: In silico evaluation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists as potential therapeutic interventions”. Toxicology Reports 8 (2021): 73-83.
  20. Lemprière S. “Single-cell transcriptomics reveals neuroinflammation in severe COVID-19”. Nature Reviews Neurology 17 (2021): 461.
  21. Tomasoni D., et al. “Anxiety and depression symptoms after virological clearance of COVID-19: A cross-sectional study in Milan, Italy”. Journal of Medical Virology 93 (2021): 1175-1179.
  22. Daroische R., et al. “Cognitive Impairment After COVID-19-A Review on Objective Test Data”. Frontiers in Neurology 12 (2021).
  23. Mastropaolo J., et al. “Anabasine, a selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, antagonizes MK-801-elicited mouse popping behavior, an animal model of schizophrenia”. Behavioural Brain Research 153 (2004): 419-422.
  24. Nemani K., et al. “Association of Psychiatric Disorders with Mortality among Patients with COVID-19”. JAMA Psychiatry 78 (2021): 380-386.
  25. Villafane G., et al. “High-dose transdermal nicotine in Parkinson’s disease patients: a randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint evaluation phase 2 study”. European Journal of Neurology 25 (2018): 120-127.
  26. Newhouse P., et al. “Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A 6-month double-blind pilot clinical trial”. Neurology 78 (2012): 91-101.
  27. Schnoll RA., et al. “Long-term Nicotine Replacement Therapy”. JAMA Internal Medicine 175 (2015): 504.
  28. California U of: Pharmacologic product guide: FDA-Approved Medications for Smoking Cessation (2019).
  29. Oncken C., et al. “Effects of nicotine patch or nasal spray on nicotine and cotinine concentrations in pregnant smokers”. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 22 (2009): 751-758.
  30. Villafane G., et al. “Chronic high dose transdermal nicotine in Parkinson’s disease: An open trial”. European Journal of Neurology 14 (2007): 1313-1316.
  31. Benowitz NL., et al. “Cardiovascular Effects of Nasal and Transdermal Nicotine and Cigarette Smoking”. Hypertension 39 (2002): 1107-1112.
  32. Kimmel SE., et al. “Risk of acute first myocardial infarction and use of nicotine patches in a general population”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 37 (2001): 1297-1302.
  33. Joseph AM., et al. “The Safety of Transdermal Nicotine as an Aid to Smoking Cessation in Patients with Cardiac Disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine 335 (1996): 1792-1798.
  34. Ware JH., et al. “Cardiovascular Safety of Varenicline”. American Journal of Therapeutics (2013): 1.
  35. Woolf KJ., et al. “Effect of nicotine replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndromes”. The American Journal of Cardiology 110 (2012): 968-970.
  36. Benowitz NL and Gourlay SG. “Cardiovascular Toxicity of Nicotine: Implications for Nicotine Replacement Therapy 11All editorial decisions for this article, including selection of referees, were made by a Guest Editor. This policy applies to all articles with authors from the Universi”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 29 (1997): 1422-1431.
  37. Zevin S., et al. “Dose-related cardiovascular and endocrine effects of transdermal nicotine”. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 64 (1998): 87-95.
  38. Apelberg BJ., et al. “Estimating the Risks and Benefits of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation in the United States”. American Journal of Public Health 100 (2010): 341-348.
  39. Hecht SS. “Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer”. Nature Reviews Cancer 3 (2003): 733-744.
  40. Fishbein L., et al. “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of nicotine nasal spray devices on cardiovascular and pulmonary function”. Journal of Investigative Medicine 48 (2000): 435-440.
  41. Hatsukami DK., et al. “Safety of cotinine in humans: Physiologic, subjective, and cognitive effects”. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 57 (1997): 643-650.
  42. Echeverria V., et al. “Neuroinflammation: A Therapeutic Target of Cotinine for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders?” Current Pharmaceutical Design 22 (2016): 1324-1333.
  43. Levin ED., et al. “Effects of tobacco smoke constituents, anabasine and anatabine, on memory and attention in female rats”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 28 (2014): 915-922.
  44. Caine SB., et al. “Nicotine-like behavioral effects of the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in male rodents”. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 22 (2014): 9-22.
  45. Mello NK., et al. “Anatabine significantly decreases nicotine self-administration”. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 22 (2014): 1-8.
  46. DPDB-ALA., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of anatabine via inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation”. European Journal of Pharmacology 698 (2013): 145-153.
  47. Del Valle DM., et al. “An inflammatory cytokine signature predicts COVID-19 severity and survival”. Nature Medicine 26 (2020): 1636-1643.
  48. Suekawa M., et al. “Pharmacological studies on ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent constituents, (6)-gingerol and (6) -shogaol”. Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics 7 (1984): 836-848.
  49. Kim EC., et al. “[6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 335 (2005): 300-308.
  50. Chan L., et al. “[6]-Gingerol attenuates β-amyloid-induced oxidative cell death via fortifying cellular antioxidant defense system”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49 (2011): 1261-1269.
  51. Son MJ., et al. “Mechanisms for antidiabetic effect of gingerol in cultured cells and obese diabetic model mice”. Cytotechnology 67 (2015): 641-652.
  52. El-Bassossy HM., et al. “Cardioprotection by 6-gingerol in diabetic rats”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 477 (2016): 908-914.
  53. Means C. “Mechanisms of increased morbidity and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with diabetes: what this means for an effective management strategy”. Metabolism (2020): 108.
  54. Kim KM., et al. “Differential regulation of NO availability from macrophages and endothelial cells by the garlic component S-allyl cysteine”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 30 (2001): 747-756.
  55. Amagase H. “Clarifying the real bioactive constituents of garlic”. Journal of Nutrition 136 (2006): 16-72.
  56. Rojas P., et al. “S-Allylcysteine, a garlic compound, protects against oxidative stress in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced parkinsonism in mice”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 22 (2011): 937-944.
  57. Pandey P., et al. “Screening of potent inhibitors against 2019 novel coronavirus (Covid-19) from alliumsativum and allium cepa: An in silico approach”. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry 11 (2021): 7981-7993.
  58. Schneider NG., et al. “Efficacy of a nicotine nasal spray in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial”. Addiction 90 (1995): 1671-1682.
  59. Sutherland G., et al. “Randomised controlled trial of nasal nicotine spray in smoking cessation”. Lancet 340 (1992): 324-329.
  60. Olsson P., et al. “Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine after Intranasal Administration”. Effects of Nicotine on Biological Systems (1991): 57-61.
  61. Benowitz NL., et al. “Nicotine Chemistry, Metabolism”. Kinetics and Biomarkers (2009): 29-60.
  62. Russell MAH., et al. “Nasal nicotine solution: A potential aid to giving up smoking?” British Medical Journal 286 (1983): 683-684.
  63. Munari AB., et al. “Modified Medical Research”. Respiratory Care 63 (2018): 77-85.
  64. Cabral LL., et al. “A systematic review of cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale”. Journal of Physical Education (2017): 28.
  65. Maher LLM. “The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale”. Care of the Obese in Advanced Practice Nursing (2018).
  66. Kildesø J., et al. “Visual analogue scales for detecting changes in symptoms of the sick building syndrome in an intervention study”. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 25 (1999): 361-367.
  67. Micklewright D., et al. “Development and Validity of the Rating-of-Fatigue Scale”. Sport Medicine 47 (2017): 2375-2393.
  68. Santus P., et al. “Changes in quality of life and dyspnoea after hospitalization in COVID-19 patients discharged at home”. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 15 (2020).
  69. Wu Q., et al. “A follow-up study of respiratory and physical function after discharge in patients with redetectable positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid results following recovery from COVID-19”. The International Journal of Infectious Diseases 107 (2021): 5-11.
  70. Ramalho SHR., et al. “Association of Undifferentiated Dyspnea in Late Life With Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Dysfunction”. JAMA Network Open 2 (2019): e195321.
  71. Stephenson JJ., et al. “Clinical and economic burden of dyspnea and other COPD symptoms in a managed care setting”. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 12 (2017): 1947-1959.
  72. Small M., et al. “Prevalence and burden of dyspnoea among COPD patients in Japan”. International Journal of Clinical Practice 70 (2016): 676-681.
  73. Shinya Yamauchi SM. “Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of the Intensity of Resistance Exercise”. International Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 01 (2013).
  74. Rasch D., et al. “How robust are tests for two independent samples?” Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 137 (2007): 2706-2720.
  75. “The control of the false discovery rate in multiple testing under dependency”. Annals of Statistics 29 (2001): 1165-1188.
  76. Dexter TA. “R: a language and environment for statistical computing”. Quaternary Research 81 (2014): 114-124.
  77. Jain V and Yuan JM. “Predictive symptoms and comorbidities for severe COVID-19 and intensive care unit admission: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Public Health 65 (2020): 533-546.
  78. Carfì A., et al. “Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 324 (2020): 603.
  79. Zhao Y., et al. “Follow-up study of the pulmonary function and related physiological characteristics of COVID-19 survivors three months after recovery”. EClinical Medicine 25 (2020): 100463.
  80. Galván-Tejada CE., et al. “Persistence of COVID-19 Symptoms after Recovery in Mexican Population”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (2020): 9367.
  81. Townsend L., et al. “Persistent fatigue following SARS-CoV-2 infection is common and independent of severity of initial infection”. PLoS One 15 (2020).
  82. Miller A. “COVID ‐19: not just an acute illness”. Trends in Urology and Men's Health 11 (2020): 17-19.
  83. Goërtz YMJ., et al. “Persistent symptoms 3 months after a SARS-CoV-2 infection: the post-COVID-19 syndrome?” ERJ Open Research 6 (2020): 00542-2020.
  84. Tenforde MW., et al. Symptom Duration and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Usual Health Among Outpatients with COVID-19 in a Multistate Health Care Systems Network - United States (2020).
Citation: Orlando Angulo., et al. “Cholinergic Agonists against Covid-19 in Humans. Results from a Randomized Open Label Pilot Trial”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 13.7 (2022): 09-24.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 14, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.