Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2021
Socio-economic Variable of Parents as a Correlate Promoting Teenage Pregnancy among Medical Students in Delta State University, Abraka
Nwogueze Bartholomew Chukwuebuka1*, Ovuakporaye Simon Irikefe2, Daubry, Tarela Melish Elias2, Toloyai Pere-Ebi Yabrade3, Ossai Nduka Richard2, Ohwin Peggy Ejiro2, Nnama Tochukwu Nnamdi4, Omeru Oghenerukevwe2, Ebuwa Emmanuel Ikemefune2 and Nwogueze Onyinye Jane-Francis5
1Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Evangel University, Akaeze, Ebonyi State Nigeria
22Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
33Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State
4Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Evangel University, Akaeze, Ebonyi State Nigeria
5Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Nwogueze Bartholomew Chukwuebuka, Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Evangel University, Akaeze, Ebonyi State Nigeria.
Received: January 04, 2021; Published: February 27, 2021


The incidence of teenage pregnancy has attracted global concern due to its impact on the teen’s maternal health, the overall wellbeing of the child and the society at large. This study examined socio-economic variable of parents as a correlate promoting teenage pregnancy among medical students in Delta State University, Abraka Delta State. The Ex-Post Facto method was chosen as the research design for the study. 294 female medical students were selected from a total of 982 students from the medical college using simple random sampling technique. The instruments used for data collection was a self-structured and well-designed questionnaire containing 25 multiple choice items based on the research questions developed in the study. 278 questionnaires were successful retrieved from the field and was used for data analysis. Frequency count, percentages, mean score and Pearson product moment correlation were employed as the statistical technique for data analysis. SPSS version 21.0 was utilized for data analysis. Findings from this study revealed that parental income (p = 0.003) and occupation (p = 0.005) were the viable parents’ socio-economic variable promoting teenage pregnancy among medical students in Delta State University, Abraka when compared to educational background (p = 0.343), religion (p = 0.307) and marital status (p = 0.053) variables that were not significantly related. It appears that significant number of adolescent female students who become pregnant has to leave school and this have a long-term implication for them as individual, their family and their community. Therefore, effective parent-daughter relationships and school-based reproductive health education programmes are strongly recommended.

Keywords: Parents; Teenage Pregnancy; Socio-Economic Variable; Medical Students


    1. Elendou-Enyégué PM. “Pregnancy-related dropouts and Gender Inequality in Education”. Demography 3 (2004): 509-528.
    2. Hamilton BE., et al. “Births: Preliminary data for 2015”. Hyattsville, MD: National center for health statistics (2016).
    3. Eunice KS. “What are some common signs of pregnancy?”. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development1 (2013): 1-6.
    4. Shehan CL. “The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies”. John Wiley and Sons (2016): 406.
    5. Li C., et al. “Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in women with planned pregnancy: a case-control study”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 181 (2014): 176-182.
    6. Anyanwu FC., et al. “Perception on the severity of unwanted pregnancy among university students”. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 4 (2013): 923-928.
    7. Brook Gnn J and Furstenberg FF. “Adolescent Sexual Behaviour”. American Psychologist1 (2009): 149-259.
    8. World Health Organization. Adolescent development (2016).
    9. Demographic Health Survey program. Teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: Facts and truth (2013).
    10. Olukoshi AO. “The Child in the Contemporary Nigeria: An Introduction to Issues, Lamirex Printing Press, Lagos (2010).
    11. Macleod C. “Adolescence, Pregnancy and Abortion: Constructing a Threat of Degeneration”. New York: Routledge (2010): 23-41.
    12. Finer LB and Zolna MR. “Declines in unintended pregnancy in the United States, 2008-2011”. New England Journal of Medicine9 (2016): 843-852.
    13. “Motherhood in childhood: Facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy”. New York, USA (2013).
    14. Ibrahim I and Owoeye G. “Outcome of teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta of Nigeria”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science1 (2012): 45-50.
    15. Aboyeji A. “Obstetric performance of teenage primigravidae”. Nigeria Medical Journal3 (1997): 56-59.
    16. Igwebuike TB. “Educational Research, Methods and Materials, Eregha (Nig.) Co., Ughelli, Delta state (2000): 54-80.
    17. Mugenda OMA and Mugenda AG. “Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches”. Nairobi: African Center for Technology Studies (ACTS) Press (2003).
    18. Orodho AJ. “Essential of education and social sciences”. Nairobi: Malisa Publishers (2008).
    19. Bello A. “Determines of undergraduates Drop-out in university Business studies Department”. Journal of Further and Higher Education2 (1999): 123-141.
    20. Odukwe O. “The Ebonyi State to implement free education”. Sunday punch Newspaper (2001): 23.
    21. Mathewos S and Mekuria A. “Teenage pregnancy and its associated factors among school adolescents of Arba Minch town, southern Ethiopia”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 3 (2018): 287-298.
    22. Ayele BG., et al. “Determinants of teenage pregnancy in Degua Tembien District, Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a community-based case-control study”. PLoS One7 (2018): e0200898.
    23. Envuladu EA., et al. “Determinants and outcome of teenage pregnancy in a rural community in Jos, plateau state, Nigeria”. The Sub-Saharan African Journal of Medicine 1 (2014): 48.
    24. Naziru MT. “Determinants of adolescent pregnancy: a case-control study in the Amenfi West District, Ghana (2017).
    25. Philemon MN. “Factors contributing to high adolescent pregnancy rate in kinondoni municipality”. Tanzania: Dar-Es-Salaam (2007).
    26. Muraina KO and Ajayi K. "Parents’ Education, Occupation and Real Mother’s Age as Predictors of Students’ Achievement in Mathematics in Some Selected Secondary Schools in Ogun State, Nigeria”. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal1 (2011): 38.
    27. Jessica S and Diana R. “The Role of Parents and Families in Teen Pregnancy Prevention: An Analysis of Programs and Policies”. Journal of Family Issues10 (2014): 1339-1362.
    28. Assimeng, M. “Religion and social change in West Africa”. (2nd edition.). Accra: Woelipubl. Services (2010).
    29. Nalenga GZ. “Causes of unintended pregnancy among adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Norwegian University of Life Sciences (2012).
    30. Meddinus UV and Johnson TC. “Factors associated with unwanted pregnancy (2007).
    31. Gideon R. “Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and fertility in Uganda: analysis of the 2011 demographic and health survey data”. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 2 (2013): 30-35.
    32. Alemayehu T., et al. “Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia”. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 1 (2010): 30-38.
Citation: Nwogueze Bartholomew Chukwuebuka., et al. “Socio-economic Variable of Parents as a Correlate Promoting Teenage Pregnancy among Medical Students in Delta State University, Abraka”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 9.3 (2021): 88-99.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 28, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to