Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2021
Cadmium Toxicity and Genetic Diversity: A Review on Embryo Growth, Reserve Mobilization, Oxidative Stress and Root Damage
Rahoui Sondès1,2*, El Ferjani Ezzeddine1, Ben Cécile2,3, Martinez Ives4, Rickauer Martina2,3, Gentzbittel Laurent2,3 and Chaoui Abdelilah1
1Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Végétale et Biologie Moléculaire des Microorganismes, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Jarzouna, Tunisia
2Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, Ecolab (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Chemin de Borde Rouge, Castanet-Tolosan, France
3CNRS, EcoLab, Castanet Tolosan, France
4Fédération de Recherche “Agrobiosciences, Interactions et Biodiversité”, Chemin de Borde Rouge - BP, Auzeville, Castanet Tolosan cedex, France
*Corresponding Author: Rahoui Sondès, Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Végétale et Biologie Moléculaire des Microorganismes, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Jarzouna, Tunisia and Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, Ecolab (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Chemin de Borde Rouge, Castanet-Tolosan, France.
Received: May 16, 2019; Published: February 27, 2021




Abstract

Medicago truncatula genotypes differing in cadmium susceptibility were used to test mineral, reserve mobilization, oxidative disorders, defense pathways and stress responses in embryos. Cadmium caused alteration of mineral elements, carbohydrate and free amino acid accumulations. Carbohydrates were determining to susceptible lines growth in control condition; nevertheless, free amino acids enable tolerant lines to counteract cadmium intrusion. Transcriptional changes in response to cadmium treatment were analyzed a gene encoding a monosaccharide transport protein (MtMST). A significant down-regulation was observed in the most susceptible line TN1.11. Glucose was over-consumed in tolerant lines. Thus, glucose metabolism integrity is shown essential to enhance growth under cadmium exposure. Nutrient evaluation in germination medium quantified solute losses extent at the expense of suitable mobilization to the growing embryonic axis and membrane alterations. FAAS and TSS leakages were reduced in case of tolerant lines while monosaccharide losses were accented in susceptible lines. Interactions between root growth inhibition, and the occurrence of oxidative injury suggest differential responses of the genotypes, with susceptible or tolerant accessions. ROS and H2O2 did not seem related to tolerance or susceptibility. Oxidative burst impact on cell membrane integrity suggests an active role of this burst in susceptible lines. Ascorbate-glutathione and antioxidative system, secondary metabolism events including phenolic compounds and lignification launching; and developmental modifications were described. Transcriptional changes in response to cadmium treatment were analyzed on target genes involved in (1) ROS-scavenging enzymes, (2) reduced glutathione metabolism and (3) metal chelating metabolism. In situ observation illustrated soluble phenolic compounds accumulation under Cd-treatment. However, lignification was restricted to recently created protoxylem elements established in the root tip area usually constituting the elongation zone. CD was increased. In absence of necrotic reactions, developmental changes including lignin deposition increase in cellulose and pectin contents, inter-cellular meatus, condensed and deformed hairs were noticed in Cd-treated roots.

Keywords: Cadmium; Genetic Diversity; Embryo Growth; Reserve Mobilization; Oxidative Stress; Root Damage

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Citation: Rahoui Sondès., et al. “Cadmium Toxicity and Genetic Diversity: A Review on Embryo Growth, Reserve Mobilization, Oxidative Stress and Root Damage”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 9.3 (2021): 70-87.

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Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 21, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk