Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2021
Cadmium Toxicity and Genetic Diversity: A Review on Embryo Growth, Reserve Mobilization, Oxidative Stress and Root Damage
Rahoui Sondès1,2*, El Ferjani Ezzeddine1, Ben Cécile2,3, Martinez Ives4, Rickauer Martina2,3, Gentzbittel Laurent2,3 and Chaoui Abdelilah1
1Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Végétale et Biologie Moléculaire des Microorganismes, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Jarzouna, Tunisia
2Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, Ecolab (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Chemin de Borde Rouge, Castanet-Tolosan, France
3CNRS, EcoLab, Castanet Tolosan, France
4Fédération de Recherche “Agrobiosciences, Interactions et Biodiversité”, Chemin de Borde Rouge - BP, Auzeville, Castanet Tolosan cedex, France
*Corresponding Author: Rahoui Sondès, Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Végétale et Biologie Moléculaire des Microorganismes, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Jarzouna, Tunisia and Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, Ecolab (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Chemin de Borde Rouge, Castanet-Tolosan, France.
Received: May 16, 2019; Published: February 27, 2021


Medicago truncatula genotypes differing in cadmium susceptibility were used to test mineral, reserve mobilization, oxidative disorders, defense pathways and stress responses in embryos. Cadmium caused alteration of mineral elements, carbohydrate and free amino acid accumulations. Carbohydrates were determining to susceptible lines growth in control condition; nevertheless, free amino acids enable tolerant lines to counteract cadmium intrusion. Transcriptional changes in response to cadmium treatment were analyzed a gene encoding a monosaccharide transport protein (MtMST). A significant down-regulation was observed in the most susceptible line TN1.11. Glucose was over-consumed in tolerant lines. Thus, glucose metabolism integrity is shown essential to enhance growth under cadmium exposure. Nutrient evaluation in germination medium quantified solute losses extent at the expense of suitable mobilization to the growing embryonic axis and membrane alterations. FAAS and TSS leakages were reduced in case of tolerant lines while monosaccharide losses were accented in susceptible lines. Interactions between root growth inhibition, and the occurrence of oxidative injury suggest differential responses of the genotypes, with susceptible or tolerant accessions. ROS and H2O2 did not seem related to tolerance or susceptibility. Oxidative burst impact on cell membrane integrity suggests an active role of this burst in susceptible lines. Ascorbate-glutathione and antioxidative system, secondary metabolism events including phenolic compounds and lignification launching; and developmental modifications were described. Transcriptional changes in response to cadmium treatment were analyzed on target genes involved in (1) ROS-scavenging enzymes, (2) reduced glutathione metabolism and (3) metal chelating metabolism. In situ observation illustrated soluble phenolic compounds accumulation under Cd-treatment. However, lignification was restricted to recently created protoxylem elements established in the root tip area usually constituting the elongation zone. CD was increased. In absence of necrotic reactions, developmental changes including lignin deposition increase in cellulose and pectin contents, inter-cellular meatus, condensed and deformed hairs were noticed in Cd-treated roots.

Keywords: Cadmium; Genetic Diversity; Embryo Growth; Reserve Mobilization; Oxidative Stress; Root Damage


    1. Barceló J and Poschenrieder CH. “Plant water relations as affected by heavy metal stress”. Journal of Plant Nutrition 13 (1990): 1-37.
    2. Neiboer E and Richardson DHS. “The replacement of the non descript term "heavy metal" by a biologically and chemically significant classification of metal ions”. Environmental Pollution1 (1980): 3-26.
    3. Woolhouse HW. “Toxicity and tolerance in the responses of plants to metals”. in: Lange O.L., Nobel, P.S., Osmond CB and Ziegler H. “Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. New Series. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 12C (1983): 245-300.
    4. Das P., et al. “Studies on cadmium toxicity in plants: A review”. Environmental Pollution 98 (1997): 29-36.
    5. Harris NS and Taylor GJ. “Remobilization of cadmium in maturing shoots of near isogenic lines of durum wheat that differ in grain cadmium accumulation”. Journal of Experimental Botany 52 (2001): 1473-1481.
    6. Ernst WHO. “Effects of heavy metals in plants at the cellular and organismic level ecotoxicology, in: Gerrit, S., Bernd, M., (eds), III. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of chemicals”. John Wiley Sons Inc. and Spektrum Akademischer Verlag (1998): 587-620.
    7. Rahoui S., et al. “Differential sensitivity to Cadmium in germinating seeds of three cultivars of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)”. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 30 (2008): 451-456.
    8. Rahoui S., et al. “Reserve mobilization disorder in germinating seeds of Vicia faba exposed to Cadmium”. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33 (2010a): 809-817.
    9. Bradford KJ., et al. “Gene expression prior to radicle emergence in imbibed tomato seeds”. in: Black, M., Bradford, K.J., Vazquez-Ramos, J., (Eds.), Seed Biology. Advances and Applications. Wallingford, UK: CAB International (2000): 231-251.
    10. Leubner-Metzger G. “Functions and regulation of b-1,3-glucanase during seed germination, dormancy release and afterripening”. Seed Science Research 13 (2003): 17-34.
    11. Miranda M., et al. “Peptide and amino acid transporters are differentially regulated during seed development and germination in faba bean”. Plant Physiology 132 (2003): 1950-1960.
    12. Weber M., et al. “Comparative transcriptome analysis of toxic metal responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and the Cd2+ hypertolerant facultative metallophyte Arabidopsis helleri”. Plant, Cell and Environment 29 (2006): 950-963.
    13. Stohs SJ and Bagchi D. “Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 18 (1995): 321-336.
    14. Pinto E., et al. “Heavy metal–induced oxidative stress in algae”. Journal of Phycology 39 (2003): 1008-1018.
    15. Asada K and Takahashi M. “Production and scavenging of active oxygen in photosynthesis, in: Kyle DJ, Osmond C, Arntzen CJ (eds.), Photoinhibition, Elsevier, New York (1987): 227-297.
    16. Foyer CH., et al. “The functions of inter- and intracellular glutathione transport systems in plants”. Trends in Plant Science: Cell Press 6 (2001): 486-492.
    17. Mendoza-Cózatl D., et al. “Sulfur assimilation and glutathione metabolism under cadmium stress in yeast, protists and plants”. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 29 (2005): 653-671.
    18. Edwards R., et al. “Plant glutathione-S-transferases: enzymes with multiple functions in sickness and in health”. Trends in Plant Science: Cell Press 5 (2000): 193-198.
    19. Bartling D., et al. “A glutathione-S-transferase with glutathione-peroxidase activity from Arabidopsis thalinna, Molecular cloning and functional characterization”. European Journal of Biochemistry 216 (1993): 579-586.
    20. Ha SB., et al. “Phytochelatin synthase genes from Arabidopsis and the yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe”. The Plant Cell 11 (1999): 1153-1163.
    21. Satofuka H., et al. “Metal-binding properties of phytochelatins-related peptides”. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 86 (2001): 595-602.
    22. Alvarez ME., et al. “Reactive oxygen intermediates mediate a systemic signal network in the establishment of plant immunity”. Cell 92 (1998): 773-784.
    23. Bagniewska-Zadworna A., et al. “New insights into pioneer root xylem development: evidence obtained from Populus trichocarpa plants grown under field conditions”. Annals of Botany 7 (2014): 1235-1247.
    24. Durcekova K., et al. “Cadmium induces premature xylogenesis in barley roots”. Plant Soil 290 (2007): 61-68.
    25. Song YF., et al. “Protective Effects of Calcium PreExposure Against Waterborne Cadmium Toxicity in Synechogobius hasta”. Achives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 65 (2013): 105-121.
    26. Briat JF and Lebrun M. “Plant responses to metal toxicity”. Comptes-Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences III (1999): 43-54.
    27. Ferrer MA., et al. “A biochemical and cytochemical study of cuticle-associated peroxidases in Lupinus”. Annals of Botany 67 (1991): 561-568.
    28. Velikova V., et al. “Oxidative Stress and Some Antioxidant Systems in Acid Rain Treated Bean Plants: Protective Role of Exogenous Polyamines”. Plant Science 151 (2000): 59-66.
    29. Rahoui S., et al. “Oxidative injury and antioxidant genes regulation in roots of six Medicagotruncatula genotypes in response to Cadmium treatment”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014): 8070-8083.
    30. Fojtova M and Kovarik A. “Genotoxic effect of Cadmium is associated with apoptotic changes in tobacco cells”. Plant, Cell and Environment 23 (2000): 531-537.
    31. Sergiev I., et al. “Effect of spermine, atrazine and combination between them on some endogenous protective systems and stress markers in plants”. Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences 51 (1997): 121-124.
    32. Rahoui S., et al. “Effect of Cadmium pollution on mobilization of embryo reserves in seedlings of six contrasted Medicago truncatula lines”. Phytochemistry 111 (2015): 98-106.
    33. Rahoui S., et al. “Cadmium-induced changes in antioxidative systems and differentiation in roots of contrasted Medicago truncatula lines”. Protoplasma1 (2017): 473-489.
    34. Brune A and Dietz KJ. “A comparative analysis of element composition of barley roots and leaves under cadmium-, molybdenum-, nickel- and zinc-stress”. Journal of Plant Nutrition 18 (1995): 853-868.
    35. Ouariti O., et al. “Responses of bean and tomato plants to cadmium: growth, mineral nutrition and nitrate reduction”. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 35 (1997): 347-354.
    36. Greger M and Lindberg S. “Effects of Cd and EDTA on young sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). II. Net uptake and distribution of Mg, Ca and Fe(II)/Fe(III)”. Plant Physiology 69 (1987): 81-86.
    37. White MC., et al. “Metal complexation in xylem fluid”. Plant Physiology 67 (1981): 292-300.
    38. Nocito F., et al. “Sulfur Metabolism and Cadmium Stress in Higher Plants”. Plant Stress 1 (2007): 142-156.
    39. Vansuyt G., et al. “Iron Acquisition from Fe-Pyoverdine by Arabidopsis thaliana”. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 4 (2007): 441-447.
    40. Wei W., et al. “The Thlaspi caerulescens NRAMP Homologue TcNRAMP3 is Capable of Divalent Cation Transport”. Molecular Biotechnology 41 (2009): 15-21.
    41. Perfus-Barbeoch L., et al. “Heavy metal toxicity: Cadmium permeates through calcium channels and disturbs the plant water status”. The Plant Journal 32 (2002): 539-548.
    42. Faria JMR., et al. “Changes in DNA and microtubules during loss and re-establishment of desiccation tolerance in germinating Medicago truncatula seeds”. Journal of Experimental Botany 56 (2005): 2119-2130.
    43. Glevarec G., et al. “Respective roles of the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle and glutamate dehydrogenase in ammonium and amino acid metabolism during germination and postgerminative growth in the model legume Medicago truncatula”. Planta 219 (2004): 286-297.
    44. Bogatek, R., et al. “Sugar metabolism as related to the cyanide-mediated elimination of dormancy in apple embryos”. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 37 (1999): 577-585.
    45. Weckx J and Clijsters H. “Oxidative damage and defense mechanisms in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris as a result of root assimilation of toxic amounts of copper”. Plant Physiology 96 (1996): 506-512.
    46. Harper JL and Ogden J. “The reproductive strategy of higher plants. 1. The concept of strategy with special reference to Senecio vulgaris L”. Jouranl Eco. 58 (1970): 681-698.
    47. Jain A., et al. “Molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to phosphate deficiency”. Janick J, (eds.), Plant Breed. Rev. John Wiley and Sons, New York (2007): 359-419.
    48. Holt JS., et al. “Differential efficiency of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in flashing light in triazine-resistant and triazine-susceptible biotypes of Senecio vulgaris L”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 722 (1983): 524-255.
    49. Hickey DA and McNeilly T. “Competition between metal tolerant and normal plant populations; a field experiment on normal soil”. Evolution 29 (1975): 458-464.
    50. Samarakoon AB and Rauser WE. “Carbohydrate levels and photoassimilate export from leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to excess cobalt, nickel and zinc”. Plant Physiology 63 (1979): 1165-1169.
    51. Perata P., et al. “Sugar repression of a gibberellin-dependent signaling pathway in barley embryos”. Plant Cell 9 (1997): 2197-2208.
    52. Karlson M., et al. “Hydrogen peroxide and expression of hipl-superoxide dismutase are associated with the development of secondary cell Walls in Zinnia elegans”. Journal of Experimental Botany 56 (2005): 2085-2093.
    53. Ranieri A., et al. “Early production and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in the apoplast of sunflower plants exposed to ozone”. Journal of Experimental Botany 54 (2003): 2529-2540.
    54. Noctor G and Foyer CH. “Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control”. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology's 49 (1998): 249-279.
    55. Schützendübel A., et al. “Cadmium and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Populus x canescens roots”. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 40 (2002): 577-584.
    56. Polle A and Schützendübel A. “Heavy metal signaling in plants: linking cellular and oganismic responses, in: Hirt H, Shinozaki K (ed), Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 4 (2003): 187-215.
    57. Demidchik V., et al. “The effect of Cu2+ ion on transport systems of the plant cell plasmalemma”. Plant Physiology 114 (1997): 1313-1325.
    58. McDonald MB. “Seed deterioration: Physiology repair and assessment”. Seed Science and Technology 27 (1999): 2177-237.
    59. Foyer CH and Noctor G. “Redox homeostasis and antioxidant signaling: a metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological responses”. Plant Cell 17 (2005): 1866-1875.
    60. Karlsson M., et al. “Hydrogen peroxide and expression of hipl-superoxide dismutase are associated with the development of secondary cell Walls in Zinnia elegans”. Journal of Experimental Botany 56 (2005): 2085-2093.
    61. Chaoui A and El Ferjani E. “Effects of cadmium and copper on antioxidant capacities, lignification and auxin degradation in leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings”. Comptes Rendus Biologies 1 (2005): 23-31.
    62. Ortega-Villasante C., et al. “Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum Over-expressing a Plastidial Mn-Superoxide Dismutase”. Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology 5 (2011): 62-67.
    63. Dixit V., et al. “Differential oxidative responses to cadmium in roots and leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L cv. Azad)”. Journal of Experimental Botany 52 (2001): 1101-1109.
    64. Aravind P and Prasad MNV. “Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Ceratophyllum demersum L.: a free floating freshwater macrophyte”. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41 (2003): 391-397.
    65. Verma S and Dubey RS. “Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants”. Plant Science 164 (2003): 645-655.
    66. Guo-ying Y., et al. “Comparison of physiological responses to oxidative and heavy metal stress in seedlings of rice paddy, Oryza sativa L”. Journal of Environmental Sciences 12 (2000): 458-462.
    67. Passardi F., et al. “Two cell wall associated peroxidases of Arabidopsis influence root elongation”. Planta 223 (2006): 965-974.
    68. Gallego SM., et al. “Effect of heavy metal ion excess on sunflower leaves: evidence for involvement of oxidative stress”. Plant Science 121 (1996): 151-159.
    69. Chaoui A., et al. “Cadmium and zinc induction of lipid peroxidation and effects on antioxidant enzyme activities in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)”. Plant Science 127 (1997): 139-147.
    70. Piqueras A., et al. “Cd-induced oxidative burst in tobacco BY2 Cells: time course, subcellular location and antioxidant response”. Free Radical Research 31 (1999): 33-38.
    71. Chamnongpol S., et al. “Defense activation and enhanced pathogen tolerance induced by H2O2 in transgenic tobacco”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (1998): 5818-5823.
    72. Schutzendubel A., et al. “Cadmium-induced changes in antioxidative systems, hydrogen peroxide content, and differentiation in Scots pine roots”. Plant Physiology 75 (2001): 887-898.
    73. Gasic K and Korban SS. “Heavy metal stress”. in: Madhava KV, Raghavendra AS, Janardhan Reddy K, (ed), Physiology and Molecular Biology of Stress Tolerance in Plants. Springer The Netherlands (2006): 219-254.
    74. Lee S and Korban SS. “Transcriptional regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) by cadmium during early stages of plant development”. Planta 215 (2002): 689-693.
    75. DalCorso G., et al. “How plants cope with cadmium: staking all on metabolism and gene expression”. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 10 (2008): 1268-1280.
    76. Salt DE., et al. “Mechanisms of cadmium mobility and accumulation in Indian Mustard”. Plant Physiology 109 (1995): 1427-1433.
    77. Schat H., et al. “The role of phytochelatins in constitutive and adaptive heavy metal tolerance in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator metallophytes”. Journal of Experimental Botany 53 (2002): 2381-2392.
    78. Clemens S. “Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants”. Biochimie 88 (2006): 1707-1719.
    79. Cobbett C and Goldsbrough P. “Phytochelatins and metallothioneins: roles in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis”. Annual Review of Plant Biology 53 (2002): 159-182.
    80. Romero-Puertas MC., et al. “Antioxidative response to Cadmium in pea roots”. Free Radical Research (2002): 37-44.
    81. Teichmann T. “The biology of wood formation: scientific challenges and biotechnological perspectives”. in: SG Panadalai, (Eds.), Recent Research Developments in Plant Physiology, Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India (2001): 269-284.
    82. Polle A., et al. “Biochemistry and physiology of lignin synthesis”. In Rennenberg H, Escherich W, Ziegler H, eds, Trees: Contributions to Modern Tree Physiology, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands (1997): 455-477.
    83. Van Tunen AJ and Mol JNM. “Control of flavonoid synthesis and manipulation of flower colour”. in: D Grierson (Eds.), Plant biotechnology series, Blacky and Son, Glasgow, Scotland (1990): 94-130.
    84. Santiago LMS., et al. “Compartmentation of phenolic compounds and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in leaves of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and their induction by copper sulfate”. Annals of Botany 86 (2000): 1023-1032.
    85. Vorwerk S., et al. “The role of plant cell wall polysaccharide composition in disease resistance”. Trends in Plant Scienc 9 (2004): 203-209.
    86. Passardi F., et al. “Performing the paradoxical: how plant peroxidases modify the cell wall”. Trends in Plant Scienc 9 (2004): 534-540.
    87. Haynes RJ. “Ion exchange properties of roots and ionic interactions within the root apoplasm: their role in ion accumulation by plants”. The Botanical Review 46 (1980): 75-99.
    88. Muschitz A., et al. “Response of cultured tomato cells subjected to excess zinc: role of cell wall in zinc compartmentation”. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31 (2009): 1197-1204.
    89. Schmohl N and Horst WJ. “Cell wall pectin content modulates aluminum sensitivity of Zea mays (L.) cell grown in suspension culture”. Plant, Cell and Environment 23 (2000): 735-742.
    90. Chang YC., et al. “Accumulation of aluminium in the cell wall pectin in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cells treated with a combination of aluminium and iron”. Plant, Cell and Environment 22 (1999): 1009-1017.
    91. Hossain MZ., et al. “Induction of pumpkin glutathione S-transferase by different stresses and its possible mechanisms”. Biologia Plantarum 50 (2006): 210-218.
    92. Giguère A., et al. “Sub-cellular partitioning of Cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in indigenous yellow perch (Perca flavescens) sampled along a polymetallic gradient”. Aquatic Toxicology 77 (2006): 178-189.
    93. Jackson P and Ricardo CPP. “The changing peroxidase polymorphism in Lupinus albus during vegetative development”. The Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 25 (1998): 261-269.
    94. Degenhardt B and Gimmler H. “Structural adaptations of corn roots (Zea mays) to environmental stress”. Journal of Experimental Botany 51 (2000): 595-603.
    95. Ghanati F., et al. “Effects of aluminum on the growth of tea plant and activation of antioxidant system”. Plant Soil 276 (2005): 133-141.
    96. Seregin I and Kozhevnikova A. “Roles of root and shoot tissues in transport and accumulation of Cadmium, lead, nickel, and strontium”. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 55 (2008): 1-22.
    97. Kuriakose SV and Prasad MNV. “Cadmium stress affects seed germination and seedling growth in Sorghum bicolor L. Moench by changing the activities of hydrolyzing enzymes”. Plant Growth Regulation 54 (2008): 143-156.
    98. Kopittke PM., et al. “Trace metal phytotoxicity in solution culture: a review”. Journal of Experimental Botany 61 (2010): 945-954.
    99. Gratao PL., et al. “Making the life of heavy metal-stressed plants a little easier, Funct”. Plant Biology 32 (2005): 481-494.
    100. Lunackova L., et al. “Comparison of Cadmium effect on willow and poplar in response to different cultivation conditions”. Biologia Plantarum 47 (2003): 03-411.
    101. Vitoria AP., et al. “Structural changes in radish seedlings exposed to cadmium”. Biologia Plantarum 47 (2003): 561-568.
    102. Maksimovic M., et al. “Effect of the environmental conditions on essential oil profile in two Dinaric Salvia species: S. brachyodon Vandas and S. officinalis L”. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 35 (2007): 473-478.
    103. Rahoui S., et al. “Membrane damage and solute leakage from germinating pea seed under Cadmium stress”. Journal of Hazardous Materials 178 (2010): 1128-1131.
Citation: Rahoui Sondès., et al. “Cadmium Toxicity and Genetic Diversity: A Review on Embryo Growth, Reserve Mobilization, Oxidative Stress and Root Damage”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 9.3 (2021): 70-87.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 21, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to