Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2021
Prevalence of Unprescribed Purchase of Antibiotics in Khartoum State and Aljazeera State
Khairy Mohammed Ali1*, Aseel A2, Shaimaa A2, Ali H Hassan1 and Mohammed O2
1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Elrazi University, Khartoum, Sudan
2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Aljazeera University, Madani, Sudan
*Corresponding Author: Khairy Mohammed Ali, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Elrazi University, Khartoum, Sudan.
Received: November 20, 2020; Published: February 27, 2021




Abstract

Background: Antibiotics are steadily losing their effectiveness, and superbugs have become a global agony that undermines human, animal, and environmental health; the world economy, and regional and global safety. All major regulatory, economic and political bodies around the world - including the World Health Organization (WHO), have recognized antimicrobial resistance as one of the biggest public health challenges of all times [1].

Method: A community-pharmacy based cross-sectional study was conducted in Khartoum State, Aljazeera state, Sudan with a sample size of 170.

Results: The results of our study show that antibiotics can easily be purchased without medical prescription; about 95% of community pharmacies dispensed at least one antibiotic without prescription. The highest percentage of the sold Azithromycin (95%) and Amoxicillin (95%) followed by Ciprofloxacin (60%) (Table 1 shows all findings).

Conclusion: The predominance of self-medication with antibiotics in the community is extremely high. This could reflect the patterns within the entirety of Sudan. Pharmacists play a main role in those trends along with the lack of health awareness.

The irrational use is one of many factors contributing to this crisis we have in hand, very avoidable and can be countered by establishing simple rules for pharmacies enforced by the federal ministry of health and not just bureaucratic ink on paper, with extensive campaigns on both the ground and social media to enlighten the public about the problems of irrational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Antibiotics; World Health Organization (WHO); Self-Medication

References

  1. World Health Organization. Ten Threats to Global Health in 2019” (2019).
  2. Cars O., et al. “Meeting the challenge of antibiotic resistance”. British Medical Journal 337 (2008): a1438.
  3. Campos J., et al. “Surveillance of outpatient antibiotic consumption in Spain according to sales data and reimbursement data”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 60 (2007): 698-701.
  4. Tan TQ., et al. “Penicillin-resistant systemic pneumococcal infections in children: a retrospective case-control study”. Pediatrics 92 (1993): 761-767.
  5. Deeks SL., et al. “Risk factors and course of illness among children with invasive penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Streptococcus pneumoniae Working Group”. Pediatrics 103 (1999): 409-413.
  6. Arason VA., et al. “Do antimicrobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study”. BMJ 313 (1996): 387-391.
  7. Melander E., et al. “Macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics are risk-factors for spread of pneumococci with reduced sensitivity to penicillin”. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 19 (2000): 1172-1177.
  8. Austin DJ., et al. “The transmission dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: the relationship between resistance in commensal organisms and antibiotic consumption”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B 264 (1997): 1629-1638.
  9. Sara H Oleim., et al. “The Irrational Use of Antibiotics Among Doctors, Pharmacists and the Public in River Nile State, Sudan”. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences 4 (2019).
  10. Macfarlane J., et al. “Influence of patients’ expectations on antibiotic management of acute lower respiratory tract illness in general practice: questionnaire study”. British Medical Journal 315 (1997): 1211-1214.
Citation: Khairy Mohammed Ali., et al. “Prevalence of Unprescribed Purchase of Antibiotics in Khartoum State and Aljazeera State”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 9.3 (2021): 59-63.

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