Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2021
Silver Nanoparticle and their Antimicrobial Properties
Khaled Al-hosaini1 and Asim Azhar2*
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2Aligarh College of Education, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: Asim Azhar, Assistant Professor, Aligarh College of Education, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Received: November 27, 2020; Published: February 27, 2021


Silver nanoparticles possess broad spectrum antimicrobial properties with evident applicability in biomedical and industrial endeavors. They can be fabricated and modified appropriately in the desirable manner to utilize at their maximum potential. The most noticeable nanoparticle for medical intervention are silver nanoparticles which are renowned for their high antimicrobial activity. Silver ion has been acknowledged as a metal ion that demonstrate anti-mold and anti-algal properties for long time. In the present review, we report antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles characterized by several biophysical techniques and their mechanism through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Keywords: Antibacterial; Nanoparticle; Nanotechnology; Reactive Oxygen Species; Silver


  1. Mario MA. “Emerging Trends in Micro- and Nanoscale Technologies in Medicine: From Basic Discoveries to Translation”. ACS Nano 6 (2017): 5195-5214.
  2. Thiruvengadam M., et al. “Nanotechnology: current uses and future applications in the food industry”. 3 Biotech 8 (2018).
  3. Gianfranco P. “Grand Challenges in Nano-Based Drug delivery”. Frontier Medicinal Technology (2019).
  4. Sim W., et al. “Antimicrobial Silver in Medicinal and Consumer Applications: A Patent Review of the Past Decade (2007⁻2017)”. Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland) 7 (2018).
  5. Nakamura S., et al. “Synthesis and Application of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for the Prevention of Infection in Healthcare Workers”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (2019).
  6. Wang L., et al. “The antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles: present situation and prospects for the future”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 12 (2017): 1227-1249.
  7. Dakal TC., et al. “Mechanistic Basis of Antimicrobial Actions of Silver Nanoparticles”. Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016).
  8. Liao C., et al. “Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Properties of Silver Nanoparticles”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (2019).
  9. Isaacoff BP., et al. “Progress in Top-Down Control of Bottom-Up Assembly”. Nano Letters 17 (2017): 6508-6510.
  10. Krishna G., et al. “Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical and biological methods and their antimicrobial properties”. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience 11 (2016): 714-721.
  11. Dhand C., et al. “Methods and strategies for the synthesis of diverse nanoparticles and their applications: a comprehensive overview”. RSC Advances (2015).
  12. Ijaz I., et al. “Detail review on chemical, physical and green synthesis, classification, characterizations and applications of nanoparticles”. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews 13 (2020): 223-245.
  13. Siddiqi KS., et al. “Biogenic Fabrication of Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Application”. Nanoscale Research Letters 1 (2016): 498.
  14. Ovais M., et al. “Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Microbial Enzymes: A Mechanistic Approach”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19 (2018).
  15. Ibrahim E., et al. “Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacteria and their role in inhibition of rice pathogenic bacteria and plant growth promotion”. RSC Advances (2019): 29293-29299.
  16. Siddiqi KS., et al. “A review on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their biocidal properties”. Journal of Nanobiotechnology 16 (2018).
  17. Singh R., et al. “Synthesis, optimization, and characterization of silver nanoparticles from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and their enhanced antibacterial activity when combined with antibiotics”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 8 (2013): 4277-4290.
  18. Jannathul FM., et al. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Its Applications". Journal of Nanotechnology (2015).
  19. Xuan HV., et al. “Synthesis and study of silver nanoparticles for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus”. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 9 (2018).
  20. Gaidhani., et al. “Time dependent enhanced resistance against antibiotics and metal salts by planktonic and biofilm form of Acinetobacter haemolyticus MMC 8 clinical isolate”. The Indian Journal of Medical Research 5 (2014): 665-671.
  21. Tiwari V., et al. “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Capped Silver Nanoparticle Inhibits Infection of Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii in the Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cell”. Frontiers in Immunology 973 (2017).
  22. Singh R., et al. “Synthesis, optimization, and characterization of silver nanoparticles from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and their enhanced antibacterial activity when combined with antibiotics”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 8 (2013): 4277-4290.
  23. Duraisamy K., et al. “Synthesis and characterization of bactericidal silver nanoparticles using cultural filtrate of simulated microgravity grown Klebsiella pneumoniae”. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 52 (2013): 151-156.
  24. Salunke., et al. “Rapid efficient synthesis and characterization of silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica and their application in biofilm control”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 9 (2014): 2635-2653.
  25. Belluco., et al. “Silver As Antibacterial toward Listeria monocytogenes”. Frontiers in Microbiology307. 7 (2016).
  26. Kumar DA., et al. “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity”. Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 127 (2014): 168-171.
  27. Venkatesham M., et al. “A novel green one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles using chitosan: catalytic activity and antimicrobial studies”. Applied Nanoscience 4 (2014): 113-119.
  28. Felipe M., et al. "Detection of Genes Related to Resistance to Silver Nanoparticles in Bacteria from Secondary Endodontic Infections". Journal of Nanomaterials 2019 (2019).
  29. Krishnaraj RN., et al. “In vitro antiplatelet activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using the microorganism Gluconobacter roseus: an AFM-based study”. RSC Advances 3 (2013): 8953-8959.
  30. Parikh RY., et al. “Extracellular synthesis of crystalline silver nanoparticles and molecular evidence of silver resistance from Morganella: towards understanding biochemical synthesis mechanism”. Chem Bio Chem 9 (2008): 1415-1422.
  31. Srivastava SK., et al. “Room temperature biogenic synthesis of multiple nanoparticles (Ag, Pd, Fe, Rh, Ni, Ru, Pt Co, and Li) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SM1”. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14 (2012): 831-840.
  32. Bai HJ., et al. “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhodobacter sphaeroides”. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 27 (2011): 2723-2728.
  33. Rajeshkumar S., et al. “Intracellular and extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus”. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 3 (2013): 21-25.
  34. Narayanan KB., et al. “Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae Oryzae strain BXO8”. JMB Journal of Microbiolog and Biotechnology 23 (2013): 1287-1292.
  35. Parveen A., et al. “Emphasized Mechanistic Antimicrobial Study of Biofunctionalized Silver Nanoparticles on Model Proteus mirabilis”. Journal of Drug Delivery 3850139 (2018).
  36. Morones JR., et al. “The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles”. Nanotechnology 16 (2005): 2346-2353.
  37. Othman AM., et al. “Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles induced by fungal proteins and its application in different biological activities”. Journal, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 17 (2019).
  38. Costa SLP., et al. “Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the cell-free filtrate of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 12 (2017): 6373-6381.
  39. Syed A., et al. “Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Humicola and evaluation of their cytotoxicity using normal and cancer cell lines”. Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 114 (2013): 144-147.
  40. Al-Bahrani R., et al. “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using tree oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and its inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria”. Materials Letters 186 (2017): 21-25.
  41. Vigneshwaran N., et al. “Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus flavus”. Materials Letters 61 (2007): 1413-1418.
  42. Jayasree L., et al. “Characterization of Vibrio spp. associated with diseased shrimp from culture ponds of Andhra Pradesh (India)”. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 37 (2006): 523-532.
  43. Kim S and Ryu DY. “Silver nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and apoptosis in cultured cells and animal tissues”. Journal of Applied Toxicology33.2 (2013): 78-89.
  44. Bae CH., et al. “Formation of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of a silver target in NaCl solution”. Applied Surface Science 197 (2002): 628-634.
  45. Soenen SJ., et al. “Cellular toxicity of inorganic nanoparticles: common aspects and guidelines for improved nanotoxicity evaluation”. Nano Today 6 (2011): 446-465.
  46. Kurutas EB. “The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state”. Nutrition Journal 15 (2016).
  47. Guzman M., et al. “Synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria”. Nanomedicine 1 (2012): 37-45.
  48. Yan Xueting., et al. “Antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: proteomics approach”. Biomaterial (2018).
  49. Dakal TC., et al. “Mechanistic basis of antimicrobial actions of silver nanoparticles”. Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016): 1831.
  50. Roy A., et al. “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: biomolecule-nanoparticle organizations targeting antimicrobial activity”. RSC Advances 9 (2019): 2673-2702.
Citation: Khaled Al-hosaini and Asim Azhar. “Silver Nanoparticle and their Antimicrobial Properties”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 9.3 (2021): 01-08.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 24, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to