Research Article
Volume 8 Issue 12 - 2020
The Role of Health Decision Making, Executive Capacity and Community Engagement in Preparedness and Response for Controlling COVID-19
Zainab Almoosa1, Gasmelseed Y Ahmed1*, Osama Al-Shaya2 and Mansour AlFadel2
1Almoosa Specialist Hospital, Al-Ahsa, KSA
2King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh (KFMC), KSA
*Corresponding Author: Gasmelseed Y Ahmed, Almoosa Specialist Hospital, Al-Ahsa, KSA.
Received: September 24, 2020; Published: November 28, 2020




Abstract

Background: Corona is an infectious disease first identified 2019 in Wuhan, China then spread globally resulting in pandemic. It is a new disease with no treatment, hence preparedness, early response and public awareness remain vital protective measures in combating the outbreak. We are aiming in this study to evaluate preparedness strategy and response for controlling COVID-19 outbreak in two Saudi hospitals.

Methods: It is a descriptive hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in Almoosa Specialist Hospital, Alahsa (ASH) and King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh (KFMC). Random group of four hundred fifty one participants were interviewed on their opinion on governmental protective decisions and commitment to the rules. We have applied a data collection form consists of 4 sections and a total of 57 items. Ethical research committee approval was obtained from the two sites.

Results: Data on 451 participants were analyzed applying (SPSS). More than half 244 (54.1%) medical staff and the other were patients and their families. 250 (55.4%) females, 190 (42.1%) within age group 31 - 40, above 40 were (34.8%) and the remaining were below 31 years of age. High rate (94.6%) of participants rated frequent hands’ washing the top protective measure followed by social distancing and wearing mask. Community’s commitment rate and submission to governmental rules of curfew and prohibiting gatherings was (94.9%).

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the region to assess public health emergency preparedness from perspective of decision making and executive capacity. The results revealed vital role of authorities in facilitating and coordinating the preparedness between all heath stakeholders. The study proved high level of commitment within the community with the most challenging decisions were the religious ones approached in a harmony between faith and science.

Keywords: Thalassemia; FoliPreparedness; Saudi Arabia; Decision Making; Executive Capacity and Commitment

References

    1. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization (WHO) (2020).
    2. Hui DS., et al. “The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". International Journal of Infectious Diseases 91 (2020): 264-266.
    3. World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release) (2020).
    4. Gorbalenya AE., et al. “Serve acute respiratory-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses-statement of the coronavirus study group”. Bio Rvix (2020).
    5. National Health Commission’s briefing on the pneumonia epidemics situation (in Chinese) (2020).
    6. Chen Y., et al. “Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis”. Journal of Medical Virology 92 (2020): 418‐423.
    7. Wang T., et al. “Comorbidities and multi-organ injuries in the treatment of COVID-19". Lancet (2020).
    8. Victoria Haldane., et al. “Community participation in health services development, implementation, and evaluation: A systematic review of empowerment, health, community, and process outcomes (2019).
    9. Asharaf Abdul Salam., et al. “Population distribution and household conditions in Saudi Arabia: reflectins from 2010 Census”. Springerplus 3 (2014): 530.
    10. Zohair A Sebai and Waleed A Milaat. “Health care services in Saudi Arabia: Past, present and future”. International Journal of Family and Community Medicine 3 (2001): 19-23.
    11. https://www.hziegler.com/articles/healthcare-system-of-saudi-arabia.html
    12. https://vision2030.gov.sa/en/node/68
    13. John Kinsman., et al. “Preparedness and response against diseases with epidemic potential in the European Union: a qualitative case study of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and poliomyelitis in five member states”. BMC Health Services Research528 (2018).
    14. K Park. “Textbook of preventive and social medicine”. 20th
    15. TN Madan. “Community involvement in health policy; Socio-structural and dynamic aspects of health beliefs”. Social Science and Medicine 6 (1987): 615-620.
    16. Doret de Rooij., et al. “Qualitative Research: Institutional Preparedness during Threats of Infectious Disease Outbreaks”. BioMed Research International (2020).
    17. PT Bürgelt., et al. “Factors and Processes Influencing Individual and Community Preparedness for a Pandemic Outbreak in New Zealand, GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand (2009).
    18. Xiang Gao and Jianxing Yu. “Public governance mechanism in the prevention and control of the COVID-19: information, decision-making and execution”. Journal of Chines Governance 5 (2020).
Citation: Gasmelseed Y Ahmed., et al. “The Role of Health Decision Making, Executive Capacity and Community Engagement in Preparedness and Response for Controlling COVID-19”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.12 (2020): 24-31.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 04, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk