Research Article
Volume 8 Issue 11 - 2020
Side Effects of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Examined on Ants as Models
Marie-Claire Cammaerts1* and Roger Cammaerts2
1Independent Researcher, Retired from the Biology of Organisms Department, University of Brussels, Belgium
2Independent Researcher, Retired from the Natural and Agricultural Environmental Studies Department (DEMNA) of the Walloon Region, Belgium
*Corresponding Author: Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Independent Researcher, Retired from the Biology of Organisms Department, University of Brussels, Belgium.
Received: August 15, 2020; Published: October 09, 2020


Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are two drugs used for treating persons suffering from malaria and auto-immune diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. They are efficient but used at the limit of their overdose and present several adverse effects. We examined the side effects of these drugs on ants as models, and found that they impacted their food consumption, activity, audacity, tactile perception, social relationships, cognition, and that no adaptation occurred to these adverse effects. However, no dependence occurred. Quantitative differences appeared between the side effects of the two examined drugs, chloroquine affecting more the traits requiring cognition and hydroxychloroquine the traits requiring muscle functioning. One or the other of these drugs should thus be used according to the health and physiology of the patients. Also, after weaning, the effect of chloroquine on ants vanished in 30 - 33 hours and that of hydroxychloroquine in 30 hours, though patients are advised to daily consume these drugs which have a long residence time in humans, what should lead to overdose. Therefore, for safety and reason of ease, and taking account of side effects seen in humans, we advise that chloroquine should be consumed by patients not suffering from cerebral impairments every 36 hours during 6 days and not the seventh day, while hydroxychloroquine should be daily consumed by patients not suffering from neuromuscular impairments, during 6 days and not the seventh day.

Keywords: Cognition; Dosage; Memory; Muscles; Myrmica sabuleti; Overdose


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Citation: Marie-Claire Cammaerts and Roger Cammaerts. “Side Effects of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Examined on Ants as Models". EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.11 (2020): 57-82.

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