Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 2 - 2021
Changes in Liver Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, Biochemicals and Histological Assessment in Lactating Wistar Rats Following Oral Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Administration
Emmanuel Nachamada Solomon1*, Yaduma WG2, Kashini A3, Husainy AY4, Malgwi IS4 and Momoh IJ5
1Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, School of Life Science, Adamawa State College of Education Hong, Nigeria
3Department of Dermatology, Portsmouth Hospitals University NHS Trust, Portsmouth, UK
4Department of Human Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
5Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Emmanuel Nachamada Solomon, Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Received: September 01, 2020; Published: January 29, 2021




Abstract

MSG consumption has been implicated in significant oxidative stress complications. Increased metabolic demand during lactation as well as increased consumption of food containing MSG by lactating mothers could predispose the liver to detrimental metabolic burden. This study evaluated the effects of MSG on oxidative stress biomarkers, albumin, total protein, liver enzymes and histology in lactating rats. At parturition, 24 adult female lactating rats were divided into four (4) groups of six animals each (n = 6). Group I served as normal control and was given distilled water (2 ml/kg BW), while group II was given metoclopramide (5 mg/kg BW). Groups III and IV were administered MSG at 1850 and 3700 (mg/kg BW) respectively for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and samples obtained. Liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total protein and albumin were assayed from sera, whereas oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, GSH and CAT) from liver homogenate. Histological assessment was also carried out. MDA was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the MSG treated groups compared to control. Although the antioxidant enzymes were lower in all the treated groups compared to control, significant difference (P< 0.05) was observed in GSH and CAT only. Serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total protein and albumin were all significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the MSG treated groups compared to control. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between hepatic lipid peroxidation and all the serum liver enzymes. Hepatological alterations consisting of central vein dilation, necrosis of hepatocytes, lysis of red blood cells, sinusoidal dilatations were observed in the MSG treated groups. Thus, excessive consumption of MSG rich diets should be carried out with caution during lactation.

Keywords: Liver; Lactation; Oxidative Stress Biomarkers; Histology; Monosodium Glutamate

References

  1. Malarkey DE., et al. “New insights into functional aspects of liver morphology”. Toxicology and Pathology 33 (2005): 27-
  2. Lu JM., et al. “Chemical and Molecular mechanisms of antioxidants: Experimental approaches and model systems”. Journal of Cell and Molecular Medicine 14 (2010): 840-860.
  3. Betteridge DJ. “What is oxidative stress?” Metabolism 49 (2000): 3-8.
  4. Descamps S., et al. “Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B273 (2006): 2369-2374.
  5. Lushchak VI. “Adaptive response to oxidative stress: Bacteria, fungi, plants and animals”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology and Toxicological Pharmacology 153 (2011): 175-190.
  6. Drackley JK., et al. “Adaptations of glucose and long chain fatty acid metabolism in liver of dairy cows during periparturient period”. Journal of Diary Science 84 (2001): E100-E112.
  7. Reynolds CK., et al. “Splanchnic metabolism of dairy cows during the transition from late gestation through early lactation”. Journal of Diary Science 86 (2003): 1201-1217.
  8. Eweka A and Om’Iniabohs F. “Histological Studies of the Effects of monosodium glutamate on the liver of Adult Wistar rats”. The Internet Journal of Gastroenterology 6 (2007): 1-5.
  9. Diniz Y., et al. “Toxicity of hyper caloric diet and monosodium glutamate: oxidative stress and metabolic shifting in hepatic tissue”. Food Chemical and Toxicology 42 (2004): 319-325.
  10. Wahyuni ED., et al. “Combination of vitamin Cand Emodulated monosodium glutamate induced endometrial toxicity”. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 3 (2014): 106-109.
  11. Igwebuike UM., et al. “The effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate (msg) on the testicular morphology and cauda epididymal sperm reserves on the testicular morphology and cauda epididymal sperm reserves of young and adult male rats”. Veterinary Archives 81 (2011): 525-534.
  12. Baker DE. “Reproduction and breeding”. In HJ Baker, JR Lindsey and SH Weisbroth. The Laboratory Rat, volume 1. New York: Academic Press: 153-168.
  13. Shin J. et al. “Interpretation of animal dose and human equivalent dose for drug development”. The Journal of Korean Oriental Medicine 31 (2010): 1-7.
  14. Bowers GNJ and Mc-Comb RB. “A continuous spectrophotometric method for measurement the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase”. Clinical Chemistry 12 (1966): 73- 78.
  15. Reinhold JG. “Total protein, albumin and globulin”. Standard Methods in Clinical Chemistry 1 (1953): 88.
  16. Ohkawa H., et al. “Assay of lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction”. Analytical Biochemistry 95 (1979): 351-351.
  17. Kakkar P., et al. “A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase”. Indian Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical 21 (1984): 130-132.
  18. Ellman GL. “Tissue sulfhydryl groups”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 82 (1959): 70-77.
  19. Beers R and Sizer IA. “Spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase”. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 195 (1952): 133.
  20. Bhadwat VR and Borade VB. “Increased lipid peroxidation in lepromatous leprosy”. Indian Journal of dermatology, Venerology and Leprology 66 (2000): 121-125.
  21. Vernon RG “Nutrient partitioning, Lipid metabolism and relevant imbalances”. In recent development and perspectives in bovine medicine (2020): 210-223
  22. HE May and Mc Cay PB. “Reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide oxidase-catalyzed alterations of membrane phospholipids”. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 246 (1971): 6401-6408.
  23. Sanchez-Valle V., et al. “Role of oxidative stress and molecular changes in liver fibrosis: A review”. Current Medicinal Chemistry 19 (2012): 4850-4860.
  24. Torii K., et al. “Physiological roles of dietary glutamate signaling via gut-brain axis due to efficient digestion and absorption”. Journal of Gastroenterology 48 (2013): 442-451.
  25. Reeds PJ., et al. “Enteral glutamate is almost completely metabolized in first pass by gastrointestinal tract of infant pigs”. American Journal of Physiology 270 (1996): E413-E418.
  26. Brosnan JT. “Glutamate, at the interface between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism”. American Society for Nutritional Sciences 130 (2000): 988S-990S.
  27. Karaca M., et al. “Liver glutamate dehydrogenase controls whole-body energy partitioning through amino acid-derived gluconeogenesis and ammonia homeostasis”. Diabetes 67 (2018): 1949-1961.
  28. Klaassen C. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. McGraw Hill Professional, New York (2007).
  29. Sim SC., et al. “Pharmacogenomics of drug-metabolizing enzymes: a recent update on clinical implications and endogenous effects”. Pharmacogenomics Journal 13 (2013): 1-11.
  30. Hyatt HW., et al. “Lactation has persistent effects on a mother’s metabolism and mitochondrial function”. Scientific Reports 7 (2017): 17118-17131.
  31. Kelly A and Stanley CA. “Disorders of glutamate metabolism Mental Retardation and Developmental”. Disabilities Research Reviews 7 (2001): 287-295.
  32. Ozer, J., et al. “The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity”. Toxicology 245 (2008): 194-205.
  33. Sookoian S and Pirola CJ. “Metabolic syndrome: From the genetics to the pathophysiology”. Current Hypertension Reports 13 (2011): 149-157.
  34. Lamers WH., et al. “Immunohistochemical localization of glutamate dehydrogenase in rat liver”. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 36 (1988): 41-47.
  35. Nilsson A., et al. “Quantitative analysis of amino acid metabolism in liver cancer links glutamate excretion to nucleotide synthesis”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020): 10294-10303.
Citation: Subhrojyoti Bhowmick., et al. “Emergency Approval of Favipiravir for Covid19 Infection in India”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 9.2 (2021): 14-25.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 04, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk