Mini Review
Volume 8 Issue 9 - 2020
The Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nanocarbon Onion-Like Fullerene (NOLF) Materials in Humans and Living Systems
Nicholas A Kerna1* and John V Flores2,3
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
3Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: August 04, 2020; Published: September 15, 2020


Carbon fullerene materials have been investigated for applications in humans for nearly fifty years. Fullerene materials are composed of carbon atoms and are compatible with specific biological systems. They reduce the number of free radicals in cells, provide anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibit tumor growth. However, the primary antioxidant benefit of fullerene materials seems to be the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) factor 2 (Nrf2). Nanocarbon onion-like fullerene (NOLF) materials have a high surface area to volume ratio, making them viable for transportation within humans and animals. They aid in targeted drug delivery for varying conditions, such as cancer therapy. However, NOLFs safety, manufacture, and dosage should be further evaluated for consistency and toxicity and established for the safe therapeutic use in humans, animals, and plants.


Keywords: Biocompatibility; Diamagnetic; Free Radical; Fullerene; Nanocarbon; Quantum Cell; Toxicity


  1. Bartelmess J and Giordani S. “Carbon nano-onions (multi-layered fullerenes): Chemistry and applications”. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology2 (2014): 18.
  2. Mykhailiv O., et al. “Carbon nano-onions: Unique carbon nanostructures with fascinating properties and their potential applications”. Inorganica Chimica Acta 468 (2017): 49-66.
  3. Bhinge SD. “Carbon nano-onions-An Overview”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Chemical Science 1 (2017): 2.
  4. Kharlamova G., et al. “Toxicology of Heterocarbon and Application of Nanoheterocarbon Materials for CBRN Defense”. In Nanostructured Materials for the Detection of CBRN (2018): 245-277.  
  5. Andrade EB and Martínez A. “Free radical scavenger properties of metal-fullerenes: C60 and C82 with Cu, Ag, and Au (atoms and tetramers)”. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 1115 (2017): 127-135.
  6. Lee KC., et al. “Refluxed esterification of fullerene-conjugated P25 TiO2 promotes free radical scavenging capacity and facilitates antiaging potentials in human cells”. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces1 (2018): 311-319.
  7. Zhou Y., et al. “Amino acid modified [70] fullerene derivatives with high radical scavenging activity as promising bodyguards for chemotherapy protection”. Scientific Reports1 (2018): 1-11.
  8. Ma H., et al. “Carnosine-Modified Fullerene as a Highly Enhanced ROS Scavenger for Mitigating Acute Oxidative Stress”. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces14 (2020): 16104-16113.
  9. Lin Y., et al. “Catalysis by hybrid sp 2/sp 3 nanodiamonds and their role in the design of advanced nanocarbon materials”. Chemical Society Reviews22 (2018): 8438-8473.!divAbstract
  10. Rodriguez D., et al. “The Protective Effect of Nrf2 Activation in Cardiovascular Disease”. EC Cardiology11 (2019): 78-82.
  11. Kerna NA. “The Application of Nanocarbon Onion-Like Fullerene (NOLF) Materials in the Human Respiratory System”. EC Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine 9 (2020): 8.
  12. Vattay G. “Quantum Criticality at the Origin of Life”. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 626 (2015): 012023.
  13. Rioux F. “Quantum Mechanics, Group Theory and C60”. Journal of Chemical Education 71 (1994): 464.
  14. Nunn AV. “The quantum mitochondrion and optimal health”. Bio Chemical Society Transactions 44 (2016): 1101-1110.
  15. Akhter F. “Mitochondrial Perturbation in Alzheimer’s Disease 30. and Diabetes”. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science 146 (2017): 341-361.
  16. Campisciano V., et al. “Modified nano carbon for catalysis”. Chem Cat Chem1 (2019): 90-133.
  17. Huber RC., et al. “Extreme condition nanocarbon formation under air and argon atmospheres during detonation of composition B-3”. Carbon 126 (2018): 289-298.
  18. Wang CM. “Adenosine triphosphate acts as a paracrine signaling molecule to reduce the motility of T cells”. The EMBO Journal 32 (2014): 1354-1364.
  19. Zanjani AD. “Synthesis of Onion-like Carbon Using 3-phase Plasma Reactor”. (Doctoral dissertation, University of New Brunswick) (2017).
  20. Iijima S. “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon”. Nature 354 (1991): 56-58.
  21. Chistyakov VA. “Possible Mechanisms of Fullerene C60 Antioxidant Action”. Bio Med Research International 8 (2013): 821498.
  22. D’Amora M., et al. “Biocompatibility and biodistribution of functionalized carbon nano onions (f-CNOs) in a vertebrate model”. Scientific Reports1 (1): 1-9.
  23. Bourassa DJ and Kerna NA. “Will Nanocarbon Onion-Like Fullerenes (NOLFs) Play a Decisive Role in the Future of Molecular Medicine? Part 1. Foundation in Fullerenes: Theoretical Application of NOLFs in the Quantum Cell”. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanomedicine JNAN (2048): 152.
  24. Bourassa DJ and Kerna NA. “Pristine Nanocarbon-based Fullerene-like Material Toxicity and Biocompatibility (Part 2 in the series: Will Nanocarbon Onion-Like Fullerenes Play a Decisive Role in the Future of Molecular Medicine?)”. Determinations in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology 1 (2019).
  25. Bourassa DJ., et al. “A Retrospective Investigation of Novel Catenated Multi-shelled Fullerene-like Material for Biocompatibility after Prolonged Inhalation, Dermal, and Ingestion Exposure in Human Subjects. Part 3 in a series: Will Nanocarbon Onion-Like Fullerenes (NOLFs) Play a Decisive Role in the Future of Molecular Medicine?” EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 7 (2019): 577-584.
  26. Orlova M. “Fullerene nanoparticles operating the apoptosis and cell proliferation processes in normal and malignant cells”. Der Pharmacia Lettre 5 (2013): 99-139.
  27. Baati T. “The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral 15. administration of [60] fullerene”. Biomaterials 33 (2012): 4936-4946.
  28. Camisasca A and Giordani S. “Carbon nano-onions in biomedical 20. applications: Promising theranostic agents”. Inorganica Chimica Acta 468 (2017): 67-76.
  29. D'Ambra M., et al. “Toxicity assessment of carbon nanomaterials in zebrafish during development”. Nanomaterials12 (2017): 414.
  30. DeSantis M. “In situ Nanocarbon Assisted Microwave Therapy 21. (NAMT) for application of targeting human prostate tumor cells in nude mice causing cytotoxic thermal ablation using extremely short cycle microwave energy as primary therapy”. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 24 (2013): S117-S118.
  31. Fard JK. “A Review of Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Nanoparticles”. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin 5 (2015): 447-454.
  32. Valkenburg K. “Mouse Models of Prostate Cancer”. Prostate Cancer (2011): 895238.
Citation: Kerna NA, Flores JV. “The Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nanocarbon Onion-Like Fullerene (NOLF) Materials in Humans and Living Systems”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.10 (2020): 50-54.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 23, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.