Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 9 - 2020
EU Research in Nanotoxicology 2000 - 2020 and its Applications for Ensuring “Safe by Design” Nanotechnology Products for Medicine
Terry Wilkins*
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, UK
*Corresponding Author: Terry Wilkins, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, UK.
Received: July 25, 2020; Published: August 31, 2020




Abstract

The first two decades of the 21st century has seen a rapid increase, from a near zero base, for European nanosafety and nanomedicine research. This has been achieved by dramatically increasing funding and establishing effective networks of experts in both disciplines to drive forward science and technology for both and inform EU Research and Innovation planning. Initially, both disciplines focused on their respective areas, but from 2010 onwards they increasingly co-operated to better drive forward their respective disciplines and achieve safe and ethical solutions for future industrial and clinical beneficiaries of their respective science areas. At the junction of the 2nd and 3rd decades and the transition from Horizon 2020 and Horizon Europe Programs, it is possible to describe general Safe-by-Design principles for nanoenabled pharmaceuticals and implanted medical devices that are heavily dependent on the new science created by nanosafety and nanomedicine science to meet the demanding clinical requirements of the 3rd decade.

 

Keywords: Nanomedicine; Nanoenabled Medical Devices; Nanosafety; Hazard; Exposure; Nano-EHS; Safe-by-Design

References

  1. Wilkins TA. Mid-term assessment”. FP6-TP3: Nanotechnology and Nanosciences, Knowledge-based Multifunctional Materials, New Production Processes and Devices Expert Advisory Group Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006), Thematic Priority 3, European Commission (2005).
  2. Nanosafety Cluster.
  3. Ritz S., et al. “Protein Corona of Nanoparticles: Distinct Proteins Regulate the Cellular Uptake”. Biomacromolecules 4 (2015): 1311-1321.
  4. FP7 NANoREG Project - framework for the safety assessment of nanomaterials.
  5. H2020 PROSAFE Project – Actions for Best Practice.
  6. Wilkins TA., et al. “QSAR ref (Q)SAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity: A critical review”. Particuology 21 (2015): 1-19.
  7. Wilkins TA., et al. “Nano (Q) SAR: Challenges, pitfalls and perspectives”. Nanotoxicology5 (): 636-642.
  8. Oksel C., et al. “Literature Review of (Q)SAR Modelling of Nanomaterial Toxicity”. Modelling the Toxicity of Nanomaterials (2017):103-142.
  9. Gousiadi C., et al. “Machine Learning Predictions of Concentration-Specific Aggregate Hazard Scores of Inorganic Nanomaterials in Embryonic Zebrafish (2020).
  10. Wilkins TA, Newton-Dunn W (MEP): “Small SIZE: BIG Impact”, Nanotechnology in Society Explained, EU Parliament monograph (2012).
  11. Biannual Comparative Survey of Industrial Technologies, European Chemical Industry Facts and Figures, CEFIC, Brussels (2014).
  12. Nanomedicine European Technology Platform.
  13. H2020 EU BIORIMA Project | Risk Management of Biomaterials (2017-2021).
  14. Wilkins TA., et al. “Physicochemical Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Alpha, Beta and Amorphous Silicon Nitride Particles for Healthcare Applications”. Nanotoxicology (2020).
  15. Wilkins TA., et al. “Calcination of Titanium Dioxide”. EP 0 767 222 B1; Assigned to Tioxide Group Services Ltd; Filed in (1996).
  16. Afnan A (2004).
  17. Kurtz S., et al. “Projections of primary and Revisions of Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in the United States from 2005 to 2030”. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery4 (2007): 780-785.
  18. FP7 LLJ – lifelongjoints Project - Silicon Nitride Coatings For Improved Implant Function.
Citation: Terry Wilkins. “EU Research in Nanotoxicology 2000 - 2020 and its Applications for Ensuring “Safe by Design” Nanotechnology Products for Medicine”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.9 (2020): 125-130.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 04, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk