Research Article
Volume 8 Issue 9 - 2020
Dose and Time Dependent Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) on Blood Lipid Profile in Wistar Rats
Ighodaro OMO1*, Asejeje FO2, Adeosun AM1, Ujomu TS1 and Olisedeme CJ1
1Department of Biochemistry, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, Koladaisi University, Ibadan, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ighodaro OMO, Department of Biochemistry, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Received: May 29, 2020; Published: August 11, 2020




Abstract

Marked alteration in the physiological concentrations of blood lipids has been implicated in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and other metabolic disorders. Such disturbance in homeostasis may stem from exposure to environmental pollutants or hazardous laboratory chemicals. This study therefore examined the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a common laboratory chemical on the levels of blood lipid molecules in animal model (Wistar rat). After a 14-day period of acclimatization, 36 adult male Wistar rats (mean weight of 185.2 ± 5.3g) were randomly assigned to three groups, (n = 12). Group i animals served as control while groups ii and iii animals were subjected to single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 at doses of 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW) respectively. Four animals from each group were sacrificed at 24 and 48h post CCl4 administration; and blood samples were collected and used for estimation of lipid molecules, using clinical diagnostic kits (Randox®). Analysis of the data obtained showed that CCl4 at the investigated doses caused significant alterations in levels of blood lipids when compared to their baseline values in control animals. There was a positive correlation between CCl4-induced alteration and administered dosage as well as exposure time. In 24h post CCl4 administration (at a dose of 1.0 mL/kg BW), total cholesterol (T-chol), triacylglycerol (TAG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) elevated by 20.92, 6.28 and 18.40% respectively. These values respectively increased to 63.16, 59.61 and 75.34% at 48h post CCl4 treatment. Increase in CCl4 dosage to 1.5 mL/kg BW caused further elevation in blood T-chol (85.57%), TAG (84.24%) and LDL (105.61%). The level of HDL was apparently not affected by CCl4 at the investigated doses within 24h post administration. However, at 48h post administration, CCl4 caused significant (P ˂ 0.05) decline in high density lipoprotein (HDL) by 47.03 and 88.41% at 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg BW respectively. The outcome of this study highlights the potential of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause morbid disturbances in lipid homeostasis and further affirms its toxicity as a common laboratory chemical. It is therefore recommended that individuals should take necessary precautions in handling of CCl4 and avoid exposure to the chemical.

Keywords: Carbon Tetrachloride; Toxicity; Lipids; Wistar Rats

References

  1. Ranawat L., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC in CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology3 (2010): 777-780.
  2. Ighodaro OM., et al. “Antioxidant Potentials of L-Ascorbic Acid (L-AA) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) in CCl4-Induced Oxidative Damage of Soft Tissues in Wistar Rats 17.1 (2016): 1-9.
  3. Dassarma B., et al. “Hepatoprotective effect of food preservatives (butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat”. Toxicology Reports 5 (2018): 31-37.
  4. Dai N., et al. “Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins attenuate carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)–induced steatosis and liver injury in rats via CYP2E1 regulation”. Journal of Medicinal Food6 (2014): 663-669.
  5. Liao Y., et al. “Insect tea extract attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage through its antioxidant capacities in ICR mice”. Food Science and Biotechnology 2 (2016): 581-587.
  6. Kintzios Spiridon E. "Terrestrial plant-derived anticancer agents and plant species used in anticancer research”. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences2 (2006): 79-113.
  7. NIH Publication 04-4158 (2010).
  8. Murphy DJ. “The biogenesis and functions of lipid bodies in animals, plants and microorganisms”. Progress in Lipid Research5 (2001): 325-438.
  9. Lv Z., et al. “Glucose and lipid homeostasis in adult rat is impaired by early‐life exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate”. Environmental Toxicology9 (2013): 532-542.
  10. Abdelaziz DH and Ali SA. “The protective effect of Phoenix dactylifera seeds against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155.1 (2014): 736-743.
  11. Kumarappan C., et al. “Protective and curative effects of polyphenolic extracts from Ichnocarpus frutescense leaves on experimental hepatotoxicity by carbon tretrachloride and tamoxifen”. Annals of Hepatology1 (2016): 63-72.
  12. Silaban H., et al. “Glutathione peroxidase-lowering effects of the mangosteen pericarp extract on CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats”. Medicine 3 (2016): 809-812.
  13. Laguerre M., et al. “Evaluation of the ability of antioxidants to counteract lipid oxidation: Existing methods, new trends and challenges”. Progress in Lipid Research5 (2007): 244-282.
  14. Yang WS and Stockwell BR. “Ferroptosis: death by lipid peroxidation”. Trends in Cell Biology3 (2016): 165-176.
  15. Maciel EN., et al. “Oxidative stress in Ca2+‐induced membrane permeability transition in brain mitochondria”. Journal of Neurochemistry6 (2001): 1237-1245.
  16. Weber LW., et al. “Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model”. Critical Reviews in Toxicology2 (2003): 105-136.
Citation: Ighodaro OMO., et al. “Dose and Time Dependent Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) on Blood Lipid Profile in Wistar Rats”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.9 (2020): 21-25.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 04, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk