Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 2 - 2021
“Adverse Effect of Pesticide among Top Ten Imported of African Countries”: Systematic Review
Sina Temesgen Tolera*
Human and Environmental Toxicology (MSc), Lecturer in College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Sina Temesgen Tolera, Human and Environmental Toxicology (MSc), Lecturer in College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia.
Received: March 16, 2020; Published: January 30, 2021




Abstract

Background: As agricultural production in African intensifies; pesticide utilization becomes more widespread and the users are extremely exposed to these pesticides due to lack of pesticide registration scheme; importing highly toxic banded pesticides; no national plan for monitoring pesticide residue; involvement of children and women in farm work.

Objective: To review adverse effect of pesticide on top ten importers of countries from five sub regions of African Countries.

Methods: Top ten imported African countries were selected based of imported amount for ten years. The articles were searched from PUBMED, GOOGLE SCHOLAR and MEDLINE and EMBASE engines and imported into Mendeley software.

Result: The review indicates the first leading three continents for pesticides exported were European (48.2%), Asian (33.7%) and North America (12.7%), while the countries were China (14.3%), Germany (11.8%) and United States (11.5%) at the end of 2017. The first three leading importer of African countries were South Africa shared (25.7%), Nigeria (15.8%) and Ghana (14.5%). The three major imported pesticides were Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. Of 3796 pesticide users, South Africa (269), Nigeria (200), Ghana (354), Morocco (542), Egypt (102), Cameroon (241), Ethiopia (827), Tanzania (360) and Kenya (801) users. The review also found that farmers were faced with many health problems like endocrine disruption, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, cancer, cardiovascular, dermatitis, birth defects and allergy within farm. The main associated factor for these problems were low awareness, improper handling of pesticide and lack of training, lack of information and careless disposal of empty pesticides containers.

Conclusion: The study concluded that more than one billion US$ of pesticides sales was carried out into ten African countries. The farmers and users were faced different health problems due farmers themselves and poor legislation within each country. Thus, provide training and education for pesticide users and strengthen legislation for pesticide management should be advised.

Keywords: Adverse Effect; African Countries; Import; Pesticide

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Citation: Sina Temesgen Tolera. “Adverse Effect of Pesticide on Top Ten Importers of African Countries: Systematic Review”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 9.2 (2021): 61-79.

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