Research Article
Volume 8 Issue 7 - 2020
Evaluation of the Acute and Sub-Acute Toxic Effects of 80% Methanol Rhizome Extracts of Rumex abyssinicus jacq. (Plygonaceae) on Histopathology of Liver, Kidney and Some Blood Parameters in Swiss Albino Mice
Engidaw Fentahun Enyew1*, Abebe Muche Moges1, Abyot Endale Gurumu2 and Bahiru Tenaw Gosh1
1Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
2Department of pharmacognosy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Engidaw Fentahun Enyew, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
Received: February 26, 2020; Published: June 02, 2020


Background: Rumex abyssinicus jacq (polygonaceae) is common medicinal plants used in Ethiopia for various complaints such as wound healing, anti-inflammatory activities, hypertension, liver disease, amoeba and intestinal parasites. So, several studies support the use of this plant for different disease, the toxicity profile was not evaluated yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was carried out to assess the acute and sub-acute toxicity Rumex abyssinicus of rhizome extract on some blood parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in Swiss albino mice.

Method: Rhizomes of Rumex abyssinicus were collected from Gondar area, Northwest Ethiopia. The dried roots extracted with 80% methanol. 25 - 40g weight and 8 - 12 weeks age Swiss albino female mice were randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups. The control group was orally given 0.5 ml of distilled water and treatment groups were given extract by intragastric tube at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight once a day for 4 weeks and then sacrificed. Blood sample was collected from each mouse and examined for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver and kidney were removed, stained and examined for histopathological effects.

Result: The methanol rhizome extract of Rumex abyssinicus was tested for toxicity study. Female Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into control and treatment groups. The doses for acute toxicity study were single doses of 2, 000 mg/kg body weight and sub-acute toxicity study daily administration doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of extract were used for 28 consecutive days. Hematological parameters and microscopic examination of liver and kidney tissue and body weight of mice were evaluated the test period as well recording the signs of toxicity.

Acute toxicity study did not tell any signs of toxicity; that's why the LD50 was higher than 2, 000 mg/kg. There was no significant change (p > 0.05) in general body weight and most of evaluated hematological and biochemical parameters after 28 days of sub-acute treatment. The kidneys and liver of treatment group appear normal in their texture, shape, size or color compared to the control in gross and histopathological examination.

The findings revealed that the 80% methanol rhizome extract of Rumex abyssinicus relatively safe in mice.

Keywords: Rumex abyssinicus; Sub-Acute Toxicity; Histopathological Studies


  1. Organization WH. “WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002-2005” (2002): 1-61.
  2. Saad B and Said O. “Greco-Arab and Islamic herbal medicine: traditional system, ethics, safety, efficacy, and regulatory issues”. John Wiley and Sons (2011).
  3. Cooper EL. “Drug discovery, CAM and natural products”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3 (2004): 215-217.
  4. Saad B., et al. “Tradition and perspectives of Arab herbal medicine: a review”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine4 (2005): 475-479.
  5. “An Overview of the Traditional Medicine Situation in the African Region” (2003): 1-40.
  6. Abebe D. “The role of medicinal plants in health care coverage of Ethiopia: the possible benefits of integration” (2001).
  7. Demisse A. “Biodiversity conservation of medicinal plants: problems and prospects. Conservation and Sustainable use of Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia”. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia Addis Ababa: IBCR (2001).
  8. Godkar PB and Godkar DP. “Textbook of medical laboratory technology”. 2nd Mumbai: Bhalani publishing house (2006).
  9. Getie M., et al. “Evaluation of the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities of the medicinal plants Dodonaea viscosa, Rumex nervosus and Rumex abyssinicus”. Fitoterapia1-2 (2003): 139-143.
  10. Mulisa E., et al. “Evaluation of wound healing and anti-inflammatory activity of the rhizomes of Rumex abyssinicus (Polygonaceae) in mice”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15 (2015): 341.
  11. Vasas A., et al. “The Genus Rumex: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 175 (2015): 198-228.
  12. Fufa F M., et al. “Phytochemical Investigation and In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation on Root Extracts of Rumex abyssinicus”. Natural Products Chemistry and Research06 (2016).
  13. Fassil Y., et al. “Anthracene derivatives from Rumex abyssinicus”. Journal of Natural Products (1985): 48.
  14. Zinaye B and Fiseha A. “Phytochemical investigation on the root of Rumex abyssinicus (MAKMAKO)”. AAU Electronic Library (2008).
  15. Mekonnen Teshale., et al. “Evaluation of the diuretic and analgesic activities of the rhizomes of Rumex abyssinicus Jacq in mice”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology2 (2010): 433-439.
  16. Mulisa E., et al. “Evaluation of wound healing and anti-inflammatory activity of the rhizomes of Rumex abyssinicus (Polygonaceae) in mice”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15.1 (2015): 341.
  17. Getie M., et al. “Evaluation of the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities of the medicinal plants Dodonaea viscosa, Rumex nervosus and Rumex abyssinicus”. Fitoterapia1 (2003): 139-143.
  18. Raju N and Yesuf E. “Evaluation of anthelmentic activities of Rumex abyssinicus JACQ and Rumex nervosus VAHL (Polygonacea)”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research2 (2010): 55-57.
  19. Girma B., et al. “Effect of Rumex Abyssinicus on preneoplastic lesions in dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in rats”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine1 (2015): 365.
  20. Mishra AP., et al. “Bioactive compounds and health benefits of edible Rumex species-A review”. Cellular and Molecular Biology 8 (2018): 27-34.
  21. Alebachew M., et al. “Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia bipontini Vatke in blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice”. African Health Sciences4 (2014): 1012-1024.
  22. Co-operation OfE. Development. Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and-Down Procedure: OECD Publishing (2008).
  23. No OT. 407: repeated Dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents. OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals Section (2008): 4.
  24. Raafat H and Abdelmonem H Hegazy. “Simplified Method of Tissue Processing (Consuming Time and Chemicals)”. Annals of International Medical and Dental Research2 (2015): 57-61.
  25. Sellers RS., et al. “Society of Toxicologic Pathology Position Paper: Organ Weight Recommendations for Toxicology Studies”. Toxicologic Pathology5 (2007): 751-755.
  26. Kittel B., et al. “Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice--Part 2. A joint publication of the RITA and NACAD groups”. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology : Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Fur Toxikologische Pathologie6 (2004): 413-431.
  27. Spencer LT and Bancroft JD. “Tissue processing in: Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques”. 6th edition: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier limited (2008).
  28. Saad B., et al. “Safety of traditional Arab herbal medicine”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine4 (2006): 433-439.
  29. Pour BM., et al. “Cytotoxicity and oral acute toxicity studies of Lantana camara leaf extract”. Molecules 5 (2011): 3663-3674.
  30. Barbosa HM., et al. “Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Spondias tuberosa Arruda Bark: Hematological, Biochemical and Histopathological Evaluation”. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (2016).
  31. Jothy SL., et al. “Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice”. Molecules 6 (2011): 5268-5282.
  32. Sim KS., et al. “Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice”. Pharmacognosy Magazine21 (2010): 67-70.
  33. Raza M., et al. “Effect of prolonged vigabatrin treatment on hematological and biochemical parameters in plasma, liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice”. Scientia Pharmaceutica2 (2002): 135-145.
  34. Gautam M and Goel R. “Toxicological study of Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves: hematological, biochemical, and histopathological studies”. Journal of Toxicology (2014): 1-9.
  35. Hussain T., et al. “Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease2 (2012): 129-132.
  36. Weingand K., et al. “Harmonization of animal clinical pathology testing in toxicity and safety studies”. Toxicological Sciences2 (1996): 198-201.
  37. Paliwal A., et al. “Analysis of liver enzymes in albino rat under stress of λ-cyhalothrin and nuvan toxicity”. Biology and Medicine 2 (2009): 70-73.
  38. Thapa B and Walia A. “Liver function tests and their interpretation”. Indian Journal of Pediatrics7 (2007): 663-671.
  39. Stark JL. “BUN/creatinine: your keys to kidney function”. Nursing5 (1980): 33-38.
  40. Patel R., et al. “Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Benincasa hispida extract in rodents”. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science8 (2012): 250-253.
Citation: Engidaw Fentahun Enyew., et al. “Evaluation of the Acute and Sub-Acute Toxic Effects of 80% Methanol Rhizome Extracts of Rumex abyssinicus jacq. (Plygonaceae) on Histopathology of Liver, Kidney and Some Blood Parameters in Swiss Albino Mice”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.7 (2020): 01-12.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 04, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to