Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 6 - 2020
Electron Scavenging Not Free Radical Scavenging by Fullerene Materials Protects against Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Complex Organisms
Daniel J Bourassa1*, Orien L Tulp1,2,3 and George P Einstein1,2,3
1Einstein Medical Institute, North Palm Beach, FL, USA
2Faculty of Medicine, University of Science Arts and Technology, Olveston, Montserrat, British West Indies
3Faculty of Medicine, University of Health and Humanities, Tortola, British Virgin Islands
*Corresponding Author: Daniel J Bourassa, College of Medicine, University of Science, Arts and Technology, Arvada, CO, USA.
Received: March 04, 2020; Published: May 14, 2020




Abstract

Fullerene materials are often reported to be excellent antioxidants in cells. Usually, direct free radical scavenging mechanisms, as seen in polymer and food industry research, is the proposed antioxidant mechanism. However, free radical scavenging by antioxidants in vivo is kinetically unlikely and conflicts with the molecular properties of fullerene materials. Pristine fullerene materials, and many of their derivatives, have pro-oxidant pro-oxidant properties and form adducts, which are both potentially toxic mechanisms in vivo. Although they are electrophilic with an affinity for electrons, they appear to function similarly to other non-radical electrophilic antioxidants that stimulate enzymatic oxidative stress management and protection through Nrf-2 pathways. We approach the antioxidant role of fullerene materials from the perspective that they do not act as direct free radical scavengers. Other mechanisms have been previously proposed that are more consistent with fullerene properties and antioxidant benefits in vivo. Here we discuss fullerene materials as electron scavenging antioxidants rather than free radical scavengers. We propose that fullerene materials scavenge excess electrons in the electron transport chain, preventing the formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in the mitochondria. The scavenging of electrons would assist in preventing damage to mitochondrial structures and DNA, maintaining optimum oxidized to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) ratios, as well as in maintaining an oxidized respiratory enzyme system in mitochondrial conditions resulting from excess caloric intake in the absence of cellular energy requirements and progressive mitochondrial dysfunction related to oxidative stress. Further research is needed to evaluate the utilization of fullerene materials for use in metabolic syndromes and neurodegenerative conditions that may be complicated by progressive mitochondrial oxidative damage.

Keywords: C60; Native Aggregation; Dielectric Property; Fullerene Material; Oxidative Stress; Mitochondria; NAD+/NADH Ratio; Antioxidant; Electrophilic; Free Radical Scavenger; Electron Scavenger

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Citation: Daniel J Bourassa., et al. “Electron Scavenging Not Free Radical Scavenging by Fullerene Materials Protects against Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Complex Organisms”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8.6 (2020): 61-67.

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