Case Report
Volume 11 Issue 3 - 2022
A Rare Case Presentation: Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria
Mohit Bhardwaj1 and Ayush Pandey2*
1Assistant Professor, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, SGT Medical College, Gurugram, Haryana, India
2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India
*Corresponding Author: Ayush Pandey, Resident Doctor, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India.
Received: December 22, 2021; Published: February 23, 2022


45 years old male; non-smoker; non-alcoholic; presented with complain of shortness of breath, on and off since 2 years aggravated since 1 month, cough with expectoration along with loss of weight and appetite since 1 month and nausea and vomiting since 3 days. The patient was earlier a diagnosed case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis microbiologically (sputum) and clinically detected and took treatment for only 2 months. Patient was treated on the lines of non tuberculous Mycobacteria both at NITRD (National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases) Mehrauli, Delhi and at a private hospital in Faridabad, Haryana based on sputum culture reports. Patient further came to SGT Hospital, Gurugram, Haryana as he was not having symptomatic relief. Patient bronchoscopy was done in which BAL (Broncho alveolar lavage) AFB was positive, CBNAAT not detected. BAL culture was positive for NTM (non tuberculous Mycobacteria) slow grower Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Patient was started on tablet rifampicin, tablet ethambutol, tablet azithromycin and injectable amikacin thrice a week and sent home with a plan to repeat sputum culture after 3 months.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb); Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM); Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC)


  1. Haworth CS., et al. “British Thoracic Society Guideline for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD)”. BMJ Open Respiratory Research 4 (2017): e000242.
  2. Chan ED and Iseman MD. “Underlying host risk factors for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease”. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 34 (2013): 110-123.
  3. Baldwin SL., et al. “The complexities and challenges of preventing and treating nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2 (2019): e0007083.
  4. Sarro YD., et al. “Simultaneous diagnosis of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Time for a better patient management”. Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3 (2018): 10.
  5. Field SK., et al. “Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patients without HIV infection”. Chest 2 (2004): 566-581.
  6. Griffith DE., et al. “An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 4 (2007): 367-416.
  7. Yates MD., et al. “The nature of mycobacterial disease in south east England, 1977-84”. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 4 (1986): 295-300.
  8. “Pulmonary disease caused by M. malmoense in HIV negative patients: 5-yr follow-up of patients receiving standardised treatment”. European Respiratory Journal 3 (2003): 478-482.
  9. Jenkins PA and Campbell IA. “Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium xenopi in HIV-negative patients: five year follow-up of patients receiving standardised treatment”. Respiratory Medicine 4 (2003): 439-444.
  10. Winthrop KL., et al. “Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence and clinical features: an emerging public health disease”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 7 (2010): 977-982.
  11. Adjemian J., et al. “Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in U.S. Medicare beneficiaries”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 8 (2012): 881-886.
  12. Prevots DR., et al. “Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease prevalence at four integrated health care delivery systems”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 7 (2010): 970-976.
  13. Ray CG and Ryan KJ. “Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th Edition”. McGraw-Hill Medical (2004).
  14. Herold CD., et al. “Current techniques in mycobacterial detection and speciation”. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences2 (1996): 83-138.
  15. Griffith DE., et al. “An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 4 (2007): 367-416.
  16. Bandoh S., et al. “Uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection”. Internal Medicine 8 (2003): 726-729.
  17. Wallace RJ Jr., et al. “Clarithromycin regimens for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex. The first 50 patients”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 6 (1996): 1766-1772.
  18. Eisenberg E and Barza M. “Azithromycin and clarithromycin”. Current Clinical Topics in Infectious Diseases 14 (1994): 52-79.
  19. Griffith DE., et al. “ATS Mycobacterial Diseases Subcommittee., American Thoracic Society., Infectious Disease Society of America”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 4 (2007): 367-416.
  20. Alcaide F., et al. “Comparative In Vitro Activities of Linezolid, Telithromycin, Clarithromycin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Four Conventional Antimycobacterial Drugs against Mycobacterium kansasii”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12 (2004): 4562-4565.
Citation: Mohit Bhardwaj and Ayush Pandey. “A Rare Case Presentation: Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 11.3 (2022): 03-09.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.