Letter to Editor
Volume 11 Issue 1 - 2022
Is Acute Pneumonia an Infectious Disease?
Igor Klepikov*
MD, Professor, Retired, USA
*Corresponding Author: Igor Klepikov, MD, Professor, Retired, USA.
Received: October 14, 2021; Published: December 31, 2021




Throughout the centuries-old history of the AP, there has been no evidence of the contagiousness of this disease and the danger of its transmission from a sick person to a healthy one. People who became ill with AP were not subjected to isolation and other precautions necessary for infectious processes. There was only a certain seasonal difference in the frequency of this disease, but no epidemics of AP were observed.

The development of microbiology, which originated much earlier than the appearance of antibiotics, did not affect the image of the AP in any way. This disease was still regarded as acute inflammation. With the discovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae more than 140 years ago, it was found that it is the most frequent causative agent of AP, as a result of which it received the meaningful name "pneumococcus" [1]. However, along with pneumococcus, inflammatory processes of the lungs could occur with the participation of other microorganisms, so for a long time the microbiological and pathological essence of the disease was precisely concentrated in the term "acute nonspecific inflammation of the lungs". In this name, the word "nonspecific" emphasizes the absence of a pathogen specific only to AP, as well as the fact that strains of microbes involved in inflammation of lung tissue can be found among symbionts in healthy people [2].

References

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  5. Pick H., et al. “Pneumococcal serotype trends, surveillance and risk factors in UK adult pneumonia, 2013-18”. Thorax 75 (2020): 37-48.
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  9. DB Hornick. Community-Acquired Pneumonia (2019).
  10. С Castillo. 2020 IDCA/ATS Community-Acquired Pneumonia Guideline: more micro, less macrolide, no HCAP. 15th Annual NW Regional Hospital Medicine Conference (2020).
  11. https://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/community/#community
  12. Aliberti S., et al. “Criteria for clinical stability in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia”. European Respiratory Journal3 (2012): 742-749.
  13. Mohammad AK., et al. “Common Pathogens and Their Resistance to Antimicrobials in Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP): A Single Center Study in Bangladesh”. International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention12 (2020): 5144-5153.
  14. Rudan I., et al. “Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (2008): 408-416.
  15. WHO Revised global burden of disease 2002 estimates. 2004 (2010).
  16. Ruuskanen O., et al. “Viral pneumonia". Lancet 377 (9773): 1264-1275.
  17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome
  18. Ing AJ., et al. “COVID-19: in the footsteps of Ernest Shackleton”. Thorax 75 (2020): 693-694.
  19. Z Wu., et al. “Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China. Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention”. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association13 (2020):1239-1242.
  20. Merad M and Martin JC. “Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role for monocytes and macrophages”. Nature Reviews Immunology 20 (2020): 355-362.
  21. Ra SH., et al. “Upper respiratory viral load in asymptomatic individuals and mildly symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection”. Thorax 76 (2021): 61-63.
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia
  23. Li ST and Tancredi DJ. “Empyema Hospitalizations Increased in US Children Despite Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine”. Pediatrics 125 (2010): 26-33.
  24. Strachan RE., et al. “Increased paediatric hospitalizations for empyema in Australia after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 91 (2013): 167-173.
  25. Wuerth BA., et al. “Trends in Pneumonia Mortality Rates and Hospitalizations by Organism, United States, 2002–2011”. Emerging Infectious Diseases9 (2016): 1624-1627.
  26. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumococcal_vaccine
  27. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumococcal_polysaccharide_vaccine
  28. Arnold D., et al. “S12 The changes in incidence and management of pleural empyema in England over the last decade”. Thorax 74 (2019): A9-A10.
  29. Bobbio A., et al. “Epidemiology and prognostic factors of pleural empyema”. Thorax11 (2021): 1117-1123.
Citation: Igor Klepikov. “Is Acute Pneumonia an Infectious Disease?”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 10.12 (2021): 62-66.

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