Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 1 - 2022
Exposure Risk and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Patient Admitted into 3 Tertiary Hospitals in Northeastern Nigeria
Jacob A Dunga1*, Yarima Y Sulaiman2, Umar Dahuwa3, Yakubu Adamu4, Sabiu Gwalabe1, Jafiada J Musa1, Ballah Abubakar1, Auwal Abuabakar2, Calvin Chama1, Sati Awang2, Haruna U Liman1, Kefas P Zawaya5, Sulaiman Y Hamid6, Onwukeme C Obinna1, Shamaki Manzo1 and Yunana E Dickson1
1Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital Bauchi State, Nigeria
2Federal Medical Center Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
3Federal Medical Center Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria
4United State Department of Defense Walter Reed Program, Abuja,Nigeria
5Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe, Nigeria
6State Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Jacob A Dunga, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Received: November 23, 2021; Published: December 29, 2021


Objectives: This study is aimed at determining the pattern of acquiring and clinical features of COVID-19 among patients admitted at the isolation centers tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. All patients who were confirmed COVID positive from February 2020 till January 2021 were considered for this study. All patients were tested using the RT-PCR. COVID-19 was confirmed by detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in throat swab samples. A total of 319 patients that met the criteria were used for this study, data on pattern of acquiring and mode of infection, clinical presentation and RT-PCR was obtained from the patient’s record.

Results: Of thee 319 patients there were more patients within 16-30 and 31 to 45 age bracket 90 (28%) and 79 (24.8) respectively,

History of recent travels within the last 14 days before diagnoses amongst cases was the highest identifiable risk factor among the study population 169 (46.9), this was followed by contact with undiagnosed symptomatic patients 81 (22.5%), History of contact with COVID-19 patients was also a significant risk amongst the study group 43 (11.9), a visit to crowded places like market and religious gathering (church/mosque) also carried a significant risk among the study group 30 (8.3%) and28 (7.8%) respectively, there was less risk associated with participation /or attending burial rite among the study group.

Fever 81(19.9%), cough 77(18.9%) and sore throat 40 (9.8%) were among the commonest presenting symptoms, other symptoms of Sneezing, sputum, rhinorrhea, diarrhoea, Anosmia, vomiting and ageusia were also seen at varying frequencies. There were 22% of cases with co-morbidity, the most common among which were Hypertension 43 (60.6%), diabetes 16(22.5%), chronic kidney disease 4 (5.6%), heart failure 3 (4.2%), Ischemic heart disease 2 (2.8%) and chronic diseases 3 (4.2%). Within 3 weeks of isolation 86.2% of patient had negative RT-PCR repeat test and 96% (306) had there symptoms resolved and a negative repeat RT-PCR at the end of the 6 weeks isolation period. There were 4.1% (13) mortality (p = 0.000).

Conclusion: History of recent travels within 14 days during outbreak of COVID-19, contact with asymptomatic COVID-19 patients were associated with increased risk of acquiring COVID-19.

Fever, cough and sore throat were among the commonest presenting symptoms, other symptoms of Sneezing, sputum, rhinorrhea, diarrhoea, Anosmia, vomiting and ageusia were also seen at varying frequencies.

Keyword: Exposure, Risk, clinical features, COVID-19


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Citation: Jacob A Dunga., et al. “Exposure Risk and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Patient Admitted into 3 Tertiary Hospitals in Northeastern Nigeria”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 11.1 (2022): 10-18.

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