Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 11 - 2021
Sex and Gender Related Factors that Influence COVID-19 Disease in Terms of Predisposition, Acquisition, Morbidity and Mortality Rates
Saeed M Albogami1*, Sonia Mezghani2, Neamat Alsouofi3, Nawal Sharawani3, Kholoud Hambishi3, Turki Alshuaibi4, Abdelhay Mohammed5, Ali Almutawa6, Abdulhameed Basbrain6, Mohannad Badghaish6 and Sara Alshebli6
1Consultant Pulmonologist and Internist, Head Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Immunology, Director of Bronchoscopy Unit and PFT Lab, Director of Adult Respirology Fellowship Training Program, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital and Assistant Professor, Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Consultant Pulmonologist, Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and Associate Professor, University of Medicine of Sousse, Tunisia
3Consultant Pulmonologist, Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4Consultant Hematologist, Head Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5Pulmonary Registrar, Pulmonary Division, Department of Medicine, Saudi German Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
6Pulmonology Fellow, Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Saeed M Albogami, Consultant Pulmonologist and Internist, Head Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Immunology, Director of Bronchoscopy Unit and PFT Lab, Director of Adult Respirology Fellowship Training Program, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah and Assistant Professor, Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: September 22, 2021; Published: October 28, 2021


Undoubtedly, the pandemic of COVID-19 has changed most of our life aspects including social, health services, and economic aspects. There is culminating evidence supports the presence of sex and gender differences in acquisition of this infectious disease and its subsequent outcomes with males having the unfavorable rates and course. There is a paucity of data in terms of sex and gender incorporation by countries, researchers, and data providers. However, in this review, we highlighted the various factors standing behind the sex and gender differences and how could these factors influence the COVID-19 disease and its incidence rate and outcome in both sexes. We explore and discuss these factors in genetic, molecular, and clinical bases and, hence, these findings can be taken in consideration by researchers and decision makers. Nevertheless, more comprehensive analyses and studies are required to figure out this issue and of course this requires more attention in reporting disaggregated sex and gender data.

Keywords: COVID-19; Cytokines; Gender; Sex; SARS-Cov-2


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Citation: Saeed M Albogami., et al. “Sex and Gender Related Factors that Influence COVID-19 Disease in Terms of Predisposition, Acquisition, Morbidity and Mortality Rates”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 10.11 (2021): 16-26.

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