Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 3 - 2021
Atelectasis: Causes, Consequences, Comorbidities, Pathophysiology, Prevention, and Treatment
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, Uzoamaka Nwokorie3, Abdullah Hafid4, Kevin D Pruitt5, Fernand Jean-Baptiste6, Mary Ann Christy Ortigas7, Wail Taha Mohammed Taha8, Joseph Anderson II9, and Priya John10
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3University of Washington, USA
4Academy of Integrative Health and Medicine (AIHM), USA
5Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
6Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, USA
7University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
8School of Medicine, Al Fashir University, Sudan
9International Institute of Original Medicine, USA
10Fettle Path, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: January 11, 2021; Published: February 27, 2021


Impeded compliance in the respiratory system and diminished oxygenation are signs of atelectasis. Although not thoroughly explained, several mechanisms resulting in atelectasis are commonly held: compression, alveolar gas resorption, and surfactant impairment. Various and diverse factors precipitate atelectasis, such as introducing FiO2, obesity of the patient, general and intubated anesthesia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the patient’s age, surgery, and type of surgery. Atelectasis results in compliance reduction, oxygenation deterioration, and exacerbation of lung impairment. Comorbidities of atelectasis include cardiomyopathy, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and stroke.

Many patients who undergo a surgical procedure with general anesthesia experience atelectasis. Hence, it is critical to identify the underlying etiology and mechanism of atelectasis, applying a specific therapeutic approach and eliminating or reducing perioperative complications in the lungs and alveoli. Atelectasis’ prevention and treatment range from spontaneous ventilation, preoxygenation, CPAP or PEEP, and recruitment maneuvers. Properly applied recruitment maneuvers improve respiratory mechanisms and gaseous transfer in patients who manifest atelectasis under general anesthesia. Nevertheless, more studies regarding the administration and verifying the effectiveness of such procedures on oxygenation and lung parameters would further confirm, to a greater or lesser degree, their beneficial and uniform contribution to the improved prognoses of impaired patients.

Keywords: Alveoli; COPD; General Anesthesia; Intubation; Lung Impairment; Respiratory


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Citation: Kerna NA, Nwokorie U, Hafid A, Pruitt KD, Jean-Baptiste F, Ortigas MAC, Taha WTM, Anderson II J, John P. “Atelectasis: Causes, Consequences, Comorbidities, Pathophysiology, Prevention, and Treatment”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 10.3 (2021): 92-104.

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