Mini Review
Volume 9 Issue 5 - 2020
Novel Therapeutic Interventions for COVID-19 Pneumonia, Vaccine Candidates, Medicinal Plants and Healthy Immune Nutrients
Attapon Cheepsattayakorn1* and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn2
110th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
*Corresponding Author: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, 10th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Received: March 29, 2020; Published: April 17, 2020




Abstract

Currently, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19-infected patients. Some recent clinical studies demonstrated that alveolar epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells of the patients’ lungs were damaged contributing to acute lung injury. Wang and colleagues reported in the journal “Cell Discovery” published on March 18, 2020 that hydroxychloroquine can prevent SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) replication. Seven clinical trials had been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry to test hydroxychloroquine’s effectiveness against COVID-19 infection. Remdesivir, a nucleoside analogue with a broad-spectrum antiviral activity and as being in the US clinical trials with near approval for use by the US FDA has been also studied in France by Gautret., et al. from Marseille University. The investigators feel optimistic about the French research data. Favipiravir inhibits RNA polymerase activity by the conversion of favipiravir into an active phosphoribosylated form (favipiravir-RTP) in cells and is recognized as a substrate by viral RNA polymerase. A clinical trial on favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 disease was initiated by the Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen and the Clinical Medical Research Center of the National Infectious Diseases, China on February 14, 2020 achieved the promising results. As of March 27, 2020, the 7th edition of the Chinese Clinical Guidance for COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosis and treatment published by the China National Health Commission on March 4, 2020 included an interleukin (IL)-6 receptor inhibitor (a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody) “tocilizumab” as an therapeutic option for severe COVID-19 patients, patients with extensive pulmonary lesions and IL-6 level elevation. “Convalescent plasma” therapy has been working on some time by the US FDA. This is not a proven treatment but is a possible treatment. Currently, several trials on mesenchymal stem cells in treating patients with COVID-19 pneumonia are ongoing. For examples, trial sponsored by Innovative Precision Medicine Group (IPM), China. Andrographis paniculata is most widely used to treat cold and flu symptoms. Recently, some Asian countries claimed that Andrographis paniculata may kill the COVID-19 and they will initiate studies on this issue in 2020 as soon as possible.

Keywords: COVID-19; Novel Therapeutic Interventions; Andrographis paniculata; Chloroquine; Hydroxychloroquine; Favipiravir; Remdesivir; Interleukin-6 Receptor Inhibitor; Healthy Immune Nutrients; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Vaccines

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Citation: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn. “Novel Therapeutic Interventions for COVID-19 Pneumonia, Vaccine Candidates, Medicinal Plants and Healthy Immune Nutrients”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 9.5 (2020): 36-43.

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