Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 4 - 2020
Food as Coronavirus Prophylaxis
Sandra Grumelli*
Center of Investigation in Medicine of Respiration, (CIMeR), Cordoba, Argentina
*Corresponding Author: Sandra Grumelli, Center of Investigation in Medicine of Respiration, (CIMeR), Cordoba, Argentina.
Received: March 09, 2020; Published: March 24, 2020




Abstract

The global human coronavirus-2 epidemic requires rapid response, and the scientists are searching for prevention and treatment. 

The epidemiologic data collected during the epidemic show that in China COVID-19 has a lethality rate of 3.5% versus 1.19% in Japan; or 4.9% in Italy versus 0% in Germany, as of March 2nd , there may be many reasons for these differences in lethality, and diet may be one of them. COVID-19 is a β-coronavirus, like SARS and MERS, and the spread resembles the 2003 and 2012 epidemics from the same family of virus. The finding of the COVID-19 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) permits to repurpose drugs used for its inhibition.

Herein we explored natural drugs that have shown to inhibit ACE2 and CD26 and prevented MERS and COVID-19 cellular entry. We propose a diet rich in niacin (vitamin B3) and berberine as prophylaxis for COVID-19 and β-coronavirus infections.

Keywords: Human Coronavirus (2019-hCoV); Niacin; Berberine; ACE2; CD26; COVID19

References

  1. Abbott A. “Quest for SARS source gathers pace in bid to thwart resurgence”. Nature 424.6952 (2003): 983. 
  2. Guan Y., et al. “Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China”. Science 302.5643 (2003): 276-278. 
  3. Eveline Kindler., et al. “Efficient Replication of the Novel Human Betacoronavirus EMC on Primary Human Epithelium Highlights Its Zoonotic Potential”. mBio 4.1 (2013): e00611-12.
  4. Rosenberg NL., et al. “Coronavirus SD-induced immunoregulatory disturbances in a murine model of demyelination”. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 218 (1987): 441-447. 
  5. Murray RS., et al. “Detection of coronavirus RNA in CNS tissue of multiple sclerosis and control patients”. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 276 (1990): 505-510. 
  6. Zaki AM., et al. “Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia”. New England Journal of Medicine 367.19 (2012): 1814-1820.
  7. Cui J., Fet al. “Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses”. Nature Reviews Microbiology 17.3 (2019): 181-192.
  8. Schoeman D and BC Fieldin. “Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge”. Virology Journal 16.1 (2019): 69.
  9. World Health Organization WHO. Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003 (2003). 
  10. World Health Organization WHO. WHO MERS-CoV Global Summary and Assessment of Risk, August 2018 (WHO/MERS/RA/August18) (2018). 
  11. de Groot RJ., et al. “Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group”. Journal of Virology 87.14 (2019): 7790-7792.
  12. Coronavirus COVID19 Global cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE. 
  13. World Health Organization. COVID-19 briefing.
  14. Nature News. “Coronavirus latest: Italy death toll overtakes China’s”.
  15. Neuman BW., et al. “Supramolecular architecture of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus revealed by electron cryomicroscopy”. Journal of Virology 80.16 (2006): 7918-7928.
  16. Beniac DR., et al. “Architecture of the SARS coronavirus prefusion spike”. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 13.8 (2006): 751-752.
  17. Bosch BJ., et al. “The coronavirus spike protein is a class I virus fusion protein: structural and functional characterization of the fusion core complex”. Journal of Virology 77.16 (2003): 8801-8811.
  18. Ceraolo C and FM Giorgi. “Phylogenomic analysis of the 2019-nCoV-2 coronavirus”. bioRxiv. 
  19. Letko M., et al. “Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses”. Nature Microbiology (2020). 
  20. Chen Y., et al. “Structure analysis of the receptor binding of 2019-nCoV”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2020). 
  21. Raj VS., et al. “Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC”. Nature 495.7440 (2013): 251-254.
  22. Li W., et al. “Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus”. Nature 426.6965 (2003): 450-454.
  23. Millet JK and Whittaker GR. “Host cell proteases: critical determinants of coronavirus tropism and pathogenesis”. Virus Research 202 (2015): 120-134.
  24. Madu IG., et al. “SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion”. Virology 393.2 (2009): 265-271. 
  25. Han DP., et al. “Specific asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are critical for DC-SIGN- and L-SIGN-Mediated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry”. Journal of Virology 81.21 (2007): 12029-12039.
  26. Hensley LE and Baric RS. “Human biliary glycoproteins function as receptors for interspecies transfer of Mouse Hepatitis virus”. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 440 (1998): 43-52. 
  27. Hofmann H., et al. “Highly conserved regions within the spike proteins of human coronaviruses 229E and NL63 determine recognition of their respective cellular receptors”. Journal of Virology 80.17 (2006): 8639- 8652.
  28. Holmes KV. “SARS-associated coronavirus”. New England Journal of Medicine 348.20 (2003): 1948-1951.
  29. Huang IC., et al. “SARS coronavirus, but not human coronavirus NL63, utilizes cathepsin L to infect ACE2-expressing cells”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281.6 (2006): 3198-3203.
  30. Jackwood MW., et al. “Spike glycoprotein cleavage recognition site analysis of infectious bronchitis virus”. Avian Diseases 45.2 (2001): 366-372.
  31. Bosch BJ and Rottier PJ. “Nidovirus Entry into Cells”. In: Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder EJ, editors. Nidoviruses. Washington DC: ASM Press (2008): 157-178. 
  32. Chu VC., et al. “The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus undergoes direct low-pH-dependent fusion activation during entry into host cells”. Journal of Virology 80.7 (2006): 3180-3188.
  33. Madu IG., et al. “SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion”. Virology 393.2 (2009): 265-271. 
  34. Lai AL., et al. “The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide forms an Extended Bipartite Fusion Platform that Perturbs Membrane Order in a Calcium-Dependent Manner”. Journal of Molecular Biology 429.24 (2017): 3875-3892. 
  35. Madu IG., et al. “Characterization of a highly conserved domain within the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein S2 domain with characteristics of a viral fusion peptide”. Journal of Virology 83.15 (2009): 7411-7421.
  36. Williams JD., et al. “Oral calcium disodium versenate in treatment of lead poisoning”. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 19.3 (1962): 211-215. 
  37. Bradberry S and Vale A. “A comparison of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning”. Clinical Toxicology 47.9 (2009): 841-858. 
  38. Han X and Tamm LK. “pH-dependent self-association of influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptides in lipid bilayers”. Journal of Molecular Biology 304.5 (2000): 953-965. 
  39. Han X., et al. “Membrane structure and fusion-triggering conformational change of the fusion domain from influenza hemagglutinin”. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 8.8 (2001): 715-720.
  40. Belouzard S., et al. “Activation of the SARS coronavirus spike protein via sequential proteolytic cleavage at two distinct sites”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106.14 (2009): 5871-5876. 
  41. Basso LGM., et al. “SARS-CoV fusion peptides induce membrane surface ordering and curvature”. Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 37131. 
  42. Millet JK and Whittaker GR. “Host cell entry of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus after two-step, furin-mediated activation of the spike protein”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111.42 (2014): 15214-15219.
  43. Burkard C., et al. “Coronavirus Cell Entry Occurs through the Endo-/Lysosomal Pathway in a Proteolysis-Dependent Manner”. PLoS Pathogen 10.11 (2014): e1004502.
  44. Li WH., et al. “Efficient replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in mouse cells is limited by murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2”. Journal of Virology 78.20 (2004): 11429-11433.
  45. Frieman M., et al. “Molecular determinants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pathogenesis and virulence in young and aged mouse models of human disease”. Journal of Virology 86.2 (2012): 884-897.
  46. Zhang X., et al. “Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 regulates autophagy in acute lung injury through AMPK/mTOR signaling”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 672 (2019): 108061. 
  47. Velez JC., et al. “Characterization of renin-angiotensin system enzyme activities in cultured mouse podocytes”. American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology 293.1 (2007): F398-F407. 
  48. Kirchdoerfer RN., et al. “Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein”. Nature 531.7592 (2016): 118-121.
  49. Wu K., et al. “Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106.47 (2009): 19970-19974.
  50. Lu G., et al. “Molecular basis of binding between novel human coronavirus MERS-CoV and its receptor CD26”. Nature 500.7461 (2013): 227-231. 
  51. Mahajan M., et al. “NMR structure and localization of a large fragment of the SARS-CoV fusion protein: Implications in viral cell fusion”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1860.2 (2018): 407-415.
  52. Han SX., et al. “Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 245.1 (2010): 100-107. 
  53. Guo YJ., et al. “ACE2 overexpression inhibits angiotensin II-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in macrophages”. Archives of Medical Research 39.2 (2008): 149-154. 
  54. Schaum N., et al. “Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris”. Nature 562.7727 (2018): 367-372. 
  55. Takahashi S., et al. “Nicotianamine is a novel angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitor in soybean”. BioMed Research 36.3 (2015): 219-224. 
  56. Harmer D., et al. “Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme”. FEBS Letters 532.1-2 (2002): 107-110. 
  57. Peiris JSM., et al. “Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome”. Lancet 361.9366 (2003): 1319-1325.
  58. Lu G., et al. “Molecular basis of binding between novel human coronavirus MERS-CoV and its receptor CD26”. Nature 500.7461 (2013): 227-231. 
  59. Becker MM., et al. “Synthetic recombinant bat SARS-like coronavirus is infectious in cultured cells and in mice”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105.50 (2008): 19944-19949. 
  60. Wang J., et al. “Berberine Regulates Glycemia via Local. Inhibition of Intestinal Dipeptidyl Peptidase-ⅳ]”. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 45.5 (2016): 486-492.
  61. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Nicotinic acid, CID=938 (2020). 
  62. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Edetic acid, CID=6049 (2020). 
  63. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Sitagliptin, CID=4369359 (2020). 
  64. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Berberine, CID=2353 (2020). 
Citation: Sandra Grumelli. “Food as Coronavirus Prophylaxis". EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 9.4 (2020): 70-77.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for January Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the January issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 12, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk