Review Article
Volume 7 Issue 9 - 2018
Pneumonia in the Elderly
Wiendo Syah Putra Yahya*, Mia Elhidsi and Menaldi Rasmin
Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author: Wiendo Syah Putra Yahya, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Received: February 02, 2018; Published: August 20, 2018
Citation: Wiendo Syah Putra Yahya., et al. “Pneumonia in the Elderly”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine 7.9 (2018): 625-634.
Abstract
Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients worldwide.. Pneumonia in geriatrics increases mortality and has become the main cause of visits to emergency departments and hospital care units. Diagnosis of pneumonia in geriatrics is often delayed because generally, patients do not complain of fever, cough, and changes in mental status (delirium). Hospitalized geriatric patients with pneumonia will have a poor prognosis within 1 year. The incidence of pneumonia in geriatric is associated with physiological changes in geriatric patients (reduced cough reflexes and mucociliary clearance mechanisms), impaired immune systems (both natural and acquired immunities), changes in social situations (malnutrition), and diseases common to geriatric patients (diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and chronic renal insufficiency). Geriatric pneumonia generally consists of community-acquired pneumonia, nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP), and nosocomial pneumonia based on location and time of infection. Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), Confusion, Urea, Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure, Age (CURB-65) and modified American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines are modalities commonly used to assess the severity of pneumonia. Clinicians dealing with geriatric patients with pneumonia will be faced with the challenge of choosing the right antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, and patient’s comorbidities. Various factors are associated with patient mortality such as age, hypoxemia, comorbidity, causal microorganisms, malnutrition, and antibiotic administration time. Vaccination as a safe and effective effort to prevent pneumonia in geriatrics has not been widely performed.
Keywords: Pneumonia in the Elderly; Diagnosis; Severity; Challenge
Copyright: © 2018 Wiendo Syah Putra Yahya., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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