Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 2 - 2021
Psychoanalysis, its National Framework and Conceptions of the Different
Aboubacar Barry*
Clinical Psychologist, Teacher at Norbert Zongo University, Koudougou, Burkina Faso
*Corresponding Author: Aboubacar Barry, Clinical Psychologist, Teacher at Norbert Zongo University, Koudougou, Burkina Faso.
Received: November 27, 2020; Published: January 30, 2021


Despite the recurring assertion of the Universalist character of the psychoanalysis practices and theories, it rather seems to have acclimatized to the social and psychological context of each country. In the psychoanalytical literature, Black Africa has always been the topic of expositions as peremptory from one to the other, that their authors have, in fact, no profound knowledge of it. These ephemeral visions have been inherited from outdated evolutionism. The belief in the existence of primitive populations constitutes, since Freud, a tenuous idea, a form of resistance from a so called psychoanalysis which still believes that only the writings of the first colonial ethnologic-administrators offer the best information on other cultures and for which the idea of difference seems difficult to envisage.

Keywords: Psychoanalysis and Cultural Realities; Racism; Intercultural Relationships; The Child; The Animal; The Primitive; Cultural Difference


  1. Jean Pouillon. “Patient and doctor: the same and/or the other? (Ethnological remarks)”. Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse 1 (1970): 77-98.
  2. Claude Lévi-Strauss. “The sorcerer and his magic”. (1949), in Anthropologie structurale, Paris, Plon (1958): 191-212.
  3. Claude Lévi-Strauss. “Symbolic efficiency”. (1949), in Anthropologie structurale, op. city (1949):213-234.
  4. Masud M Khan. "The therapeutic framework of Freud". Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse, 1970, number 1 (1970): 99-104.
  5. Ideal psychoanalysis thus described by Pontalis: "Let us assume that the history of psychoanalysis has been less to define the limits of its action in order to specify them always more precisely, like a State which would proceed to incessant rectifications of borders, than to stay near of these limits, like a nomadic people who would never settle in a province, were it distant and apart from the reigning civilizations, but would find its space only in the confines, its reason for existing only in this neighborhood nameless with a line that he himself is, outside of any map, drawing. But, he says, "that is, of course, an ideal view”. It would be too easy to show that psychoanalysis has, in its reality, especially institutional, functioned rather on the model of the State” (Jean-Bertrand Pontalis, “Bornes ou confins?” (1974), in Between dream and pain, Paris, Gallimard (1977): 201-215.
  6. "Psychoanalysis is everywhere in the century, we are bathed in it. It is there, in the public of which it largely informs certain reactions […]”. (Jean Laplanche, Problematics 1. Anguish (1980), Paris, PUF, coll. “Quadrige”. 1998, p. 9). “[...] Psychoanalytic man is not only a man according to psychoanalysis, studied by psychoanalysis, but a man who is now culturally marked by psychoanalysis" (Jean Lap1anche, New foundations for psychoanalysis (1987), Paris, PUF, coll”. Quadrige " (1994): 16.
  7. "Born at the dawn of the twentieth century, psychoanalysis is included in all the representations, myths, feelings and actions of which the child has been the object since the beginning of the industrial era. [...] Education has become a priority for the modern State [...] First on an ad hoc basis, as a theoretical-ideological referent, many analysts, since the fifties in France, are became practitioners not only of therapy, but also of education and prevention. Culture asks them to say and do something about the child, its reality and its development. [...] Moreover, the culture was impregnated with an analytical discourse widely disseminated by the media. We consume Freud, Spitz and Spock; parents are duly advised and informed, and any well-behaved little boy knows he is in love with his mother". (Jean Coumut, "The educational temptation in analysis and analysis", in M. Fain, M. Cifali, E. Enriquez, J. Coumut, Les trois métiers impossibles, Paris, Les Belles Lettres (1987): 41-72.
  8. Masud M. Khan, op. city 102.
  9. Didier-Weill A. “Interview with Jean Clavreul”. in Didier-Weill A., Weiss E., Gravas F., Quartier Lacan, Paris, Denoël (2001): 23-32.
  10. Serge Vidennan. De l'argent en psychanalyse et au-delà, Paris, PUF (1992): 153.
  11. “In schizophrenics, we observe [...] a number of language alterations [...]. The way of expressing oneself is often the object of particular care, it is “sought after”. “mannered”. The construction of sentences undergoes a particular disorganization which makes them incomprehensible [...]. "We can try to characterize the way of thinking of schizophrenics by saying that they treat concrete things as if they were abstract”. (Sigmund Freud, “The unconscious”. in Métapsychologie (1915), Paris, Gallimard, (1968): 65-121.
  12. Jean Pouillon. “The work of Claude Lévi-Strauss” (1956), in Claude Lévi-Strauss, Race and history, Paris, Denoël (1987): 87-127.
  13. Sigmund Freu. "Psychology of crowds and analysis of the self" (1921), in Essais de psychanalyse, Paris, Payot (1981): 117-217.
  14. Sigmund Freud. Malaise dans la civilization (1929), Paris, PUF (1971): 68.
  15. Daniel Sibony, “Institution and racism”. in M. Wieviorka (ed.), Racisme et modernité, Paris, La Découverte (1993): 141-145.
  16. Daniel Sibony. "Institution and racism" 141.
  17. Racist hatred is not "when a Zulu, for example, is nearby, living and enjoying in Zulu, it doesn't bother anyone. Racist hatred is something else, it is the horror of difference when it comes back to the same thing (when the Zulus start dating your daughters, living like you, integrating themselves equally into your work while remaining Zulus. Conversely, it is the horror to see the same becoming different. What could be "more same" for parents than their children? But when these children, these adolescents, make strange, indecipherable choices for parents […], parents are seized with a kind of anguish, fury, destruction and self-destruction which is akin to the fury that we find in those we call racists" 141-142.
  18. Colette Guillemin. "The cultural difference", In Michel Wieviorka (dir.), Racism and modernity, Paris, La Découverte (1993): 149-151.
  19. René Kaës. "A difference of the third type", in René Kaës., et al. Cultural differences and suffering from identity, Paris, Dunod (1998): 1-19.
  20. Françoise Couchard. “The comparative method”. in M.-C. Lambotte, F. Couchard, M. Huguet, B. Matalon, Psychology and its methods, Paris, Editions de Fallois, coll. " The pocket book" (1995): 21-88.
  21. Bronislaw Malinowski, Journal d'ethnographe (1967), Paris, Le Seuil (1985).
  22. Marie-Cécile and Edmond Ortigues, “Methodological questions”. in Oedipus Africain (1966), Paris. the Harmattan (1984): 15-57.
  23. IN Le Guerinel. “Psychoanalysis in an African environment? The weight of cultural reality”. Revue française de psychanalyse, LI, 3 (1987).
  24. In the Guinean imagination, far from being deified, General Faidherbe is on the contrary a figure of Satan.
  25. See Amadou Hampâté Ba, Amkoullél. L’enfant peul (1991), Arles, Actes Sud (1992).
  26. "Recruitment for the army depopulates our colonies. We no longer count the deserted villages. Our workforce is fleeing to the English. »(Albert Londres, Terre d'ébène (1929), Paris, Le serpent à plume, (1994): 155-156.
  27. Amadou Hampâté Ba, Yes, my Commander! Dissertation (II), Arles, Actes Sud (1994).
  28. Nigel Barley gives a valuable description of the small world of whites living in Cameroon. These tables can be extended without much modification to many African countries. “The saddest case is that of diplomats, who seem to have as a rule of conduct to avoid as much as possible contact with the population of the country, pass by razing the walls of their office at their residence where they barricaded themselves, via the trendy coffee. [...] Unlike diplomats who cloistered themselves, [young French] [...] maintained exchanges with Africans, and not only with those who served them as servants. [...] Europeans residing in Africa tend to become strange characters. Their extreme mediocrity perhaps explains the pitiful state of the diplomatic corps; quite a few crazy people - I have met a few - who go very far despite the damage they leave behind. »(Un anthropologue en rout, op. Cited 30-31.
  29. “In Psychologie de la colonization [by Octave Mannoni], along the way, there appears a rather detailed analysis of the springs of racism and in particular that of the colonial "little White": the latter, convinced of his superiority, considers himself, in an imperious manner. and violent, as biologically belonging to a superior race, both denying the other and making him the scapegoat, a place of projection of forbidden fantasies, generally with a violent sexual connotation. »(Alice Cherki, Frantz Fanon, Portrait, Paris, Le Seuil (2000): 51.
  30. F De Negroni. Afrique fantasmes, Paris, Plon, 1992, back cover (1992).
  31. Corine Hofmann. La Massaï blanche (1999), Paris, Plon (2000).
  32. Sigmund Freud, Uneasiness in Civilization, op. cité 9.
  33. Sigmund Freud. “Formulations on the two principles of the course of psychic events” (1911), in Results, ideas, problems I, Paris, PUF (1984): 135-143.
  34. Sigmund Freud. “The literary creator and fantasy” (1908), in The disturbing strangeness and other essays, Paris, Gallimard (1985): 29-46.
  35. Sigmund Freud. “The Defense Psychoneuroses. Essay on a psychological theory of acquired hysteria, numerous phobias and obsessions and certain hallucinatory psychoses”(1894), in Neurosis, psychosis and perversion, Paris., PUF (1973): l-14.
  36. Sigmund Freud. "New remarks on defense psychoneuroses" p896), in Neurosis, psychosis and perversion, op. cited 61-81.
  37. Lisa De Urtubey. Freud and the Devil, Paris., PUF (1983): 20-23.
  38. Octave Mannoni. Psychology of colonization, Paris, Le Seuil (1950).
  39. Octave Mannoni. “The decolonization of myself” (1966), in Clefs pour l'Imaginaire ou l'Autre scène, Paris., Le threshold, coll. “Points» (1966): 290-300.
  40. Ibid 297.
  41. "This great Western civilization, creator of the wonders we enjoy, it has certainly not succeeded in producing them without consideration. Like his most famous work, a pile where architectures of unknown complexity are being developed, the order and harmony of the West demand the elimination of a prodigious mass of evil by-products of which the earth is today. 'hui infected. What you show us first, travels, is our junk thrown in the face of humanity. »(Claude Lévi-Strauss, Tristes tropiques, Paris, Plon (1955): 36.
  42. Jean-Bertrand Pontalis. “The children's room” (1979), in Perdre de vue, Paris, Gallimard (1998): 221-232.
  43. Jacques Hassoun. Childhood issues. The smugglers of memory, Paris, Syros (1994): 17-18.
  44. Frantz Fanon, Black skin, white masks, Paris, Le Seuil (1952).
  45. Alice Cherki, op. cité, p. 32, mes italiques.
  46. Ibid 48.
  47. Yves Vargas. "Les concepts du racisme", Review of the North-South Institute for Intercultural Dialogue, 17.5 (2001): 184-191.
Citation: Aboubacar Barry. “Psychoanalysis, its National Framework and Conceptions of the Different”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry 10.2 (2021): 81-92.

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