Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 12 - 2020
Adderall: On the Razor’s Edge of ADHD Treatment, Enhanced Academic and Physical Performance, Addiction, Psychosis, and Death
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, John V Flores3,4, Hilary M Holets2,5, Uzoamaka Nwokorie5, Kevin D Pruitt6, Emmanuella Solomon7 and Kyle Kadivi8
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
4Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
5University of Washington, USA
6Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
7Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
8Global Health Group LLC, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: October 14, 2020; Published: November 30, 2020


Adderall, as a drug combination, is medically-approved for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. The active ingredients of Adderall are central nervous system stimulants, affecting neurotransmitters and promoting the synthesis of specific neuropeptides. Pharmacological effects include increased physical energy, improved mental aptitude, hyperexcitability, and mood elevation. In ADHD, Adderall increases arousal, wakefulness, and motivation to execute a task, promoting goaldirected behavior. Regarding physical performance, amphetamine (Adderall) improves endurance and reaction time. Thus, Adderall is banned for use among professional and Olympic athletes. As well as benefits, Adderall has numerous mild to severe adverse effects (including death) and can result in physical and psychological dependence. The sudden cessation of the drug may cause paranoid delusion, psychosis, hallucinations, mood swings, suicidal ideation, panic attack, and tremor. Also, long-term use can result in tolerance to the drug. Adderall has high abuse potential as a recreational agent. It is misused as an academic-enhancer—known as “smart pills”—by students. Although medically-approved for managing symptoms of ADHD and in treating narcolepsy, Adderall has a high abuse and addiction potential and should be taken only if medically prescribed. Realistically, however, Adderall’s off-label and unprescribed use will likely continue; if so, it should be taken with extreme caution and vigilance..

Keywords: Amphetamine; Attention; Cocaine; Dopamine; Ecstasy; Hyperactive; Neurotransmitter; Smart Pills


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Citation: Kerna NA, Flores JV, Holets HM, Nwokorie U, Pruitt KD, Solomon E, Kadivi K. Adderall: On the Razor’s Edge of ADHD Treatment, Enhanced Academic and Physical Performance, Addiction, Psychosis, and Death. EC Psychology and Psychiatry 9.12 (2020): 65-71.

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