Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 5 - 2020
Acoustic Startle Response and Prepulse Inhibition: Sex Differences with Cocaine
James R Hordof1 and Patricia A Broderick1,2,3,4*
1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine, The City University of New York, New York, USA
2Department of Psychology, Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, CUNY Graduate Center, New York, USA
3Department of Biology, CUNY Neuroscience Collaborative Graduate Program, New York, USA
4NYU Langone Medical Center and Epilepsy Center, New York, USA
*Corresponding Author: Patricia A Broderick, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine, The City University of New York, New York, USA.
Received: March 09, 2020; Published: April 13, 2020




Abstract

Schizophrenia is a debilitating neurological illness and in this study, our focus is on an aspect of neuro-cognition that is believed to explain many of the attention and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. The acoustic startle response paradigm is applied to the animal model to test the gain or loss of prepulse inhibition (PPI). A decline in prepulse inhibition has been used as a direct correlate of dysfunctional sensorimotor gating which is measured in this study as an increase in startle amplitude or Vmax. With the injection (ip) of cocaine we induced psychosis in male and female murine animals. We compared changes in the acoustic startle response after administration of cocaine using physiological saline as a control. Sex response differences were analyzed with two-way ANOVA PRISM software by Graph Pad and significant differences were found between both dosage variation and gender. Empirical research in our laboratory with Neuromolecular Imaging reveals the pharmacokinetics of cocaine induced sex differences involved in the area of the mesocorticolimbic biogenic amine systems. In previous studies of the acoustic startle paradigm in the Broderick lab, higher doses of cocaine were used. In this investigation, low doses of cocaine were administered to compare to higher doses as different dose responses are seen when studying typical versus atypical antipsychotics. Furthermore, subtle changes and variations of responses between sexes at the lower doses may belie the underpinnings of the mechanism of such an atypical medication, risperidone.

Keywords: Acoustic Startle Response; Prepulse Inhibition; Cocaine Psychosis; Mesocorticolimbic System; Nucleus Accumbens; Schizophrenia; BRODERICK PROBE®

References

  1. Adams AL., et al. “Effects of estrous stage and time of day on prepulse inhibition in female rats”. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2 (2008): 295-298.
  2. Braff DL., et al. “Symptom Correlates of Prepulse Inhibition Deficits in Male Schizophrenic Patients”. American Journal of Psychiatry 4 (1999): 596-602.
  3. Broderick PA. “Distinguishing Effects of Cocaine IV and SC on Mesoaccumbens Dopamine and Serotonin Release With Chloral Hydrate Anesthesia”. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior3 (1992): 929-937.
  4. Broderick PA. “In vivo electrochemical studies of gradient effects of (SC) cocaine on dopamine and serotonin release in dorsal striatum of conscious rats”. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior4 (1993): 973-984.
  5. Broderick PA. “Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain”. Brain Sciences 2 (2013): 992-1012.
  6. Broderick PA. “Cocaine and Neuromolecular Imaging of neurotransmitters in brain: BRODERICK PROBE® laurate nanobiosensors in mesocorticolimbic neurons, the nucleus accumbens”. In: (Ed. Victor R. Preedy) The Neuropathology of Drug Addiction and Substance Misuse. Volume 2 Elsevier Press, San Diego, CA, New York, NY (2015): 201.
  7. Broderick PA and Phelix CF. “I. Serotonin (5-HT) within dopamine reward circuits signals open-field behavior. II. Basis for 5-HT--DA interaction in cocaine dysfunctional behavior”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 3 (1997): 227-260.
  8. Broderick PA and Piercey MF. “Clozapine, haloperidol, and the D4 antagonist PNU-101387G: in vivo effects on mesocortical, mesolimbic, and nigrostriatal dopamine and serotonin release”. Journal of Neural Transmission 6-7 (1998): 749-767.
  9. Broderick PA., et al. “Acute and subacute effects of risperidone and cocaine on accumbens dopamine and serotonin release using in vivo microvoltammetry on line with open-field behavior”. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry6 (2003): 1037-1054.
  10. Broderick PA., et al. “Clozapine and cocaine effects on dopamine and serotonin release in nucleus accumbens during psychostimulant behavior and withdrawal”. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry1 (2004): 157-171.
  11. Broderick PA., et al. “Cocaine acts on accumbens monoamines and locomotor behavior via a 5-HT2A/2C receptor mechanism as shown by ketanserin: 24-h follow-up studies”. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 3 (2004): 547-557.
  12. Broderick PA., et al. “Laurate Biosensors Image Brain Neurotransmitters In Vivo: Can an Antihypertensive Medication Alter Psychostimulant Behavior?” Sensors 8 (2008): 1-26.
  13. Broderick PA and Rosenbaum T. “Sex-specific brain deficits in auditory processing in an animal model of cocaine-related schizophrenic disorders”. Brain Sciences 2 (2013): 504-520.
  14. Broderick PA and Malave LB. “Cocaine Shifts the Estrus Cycle Out of Phase and Caffeine Restores It”. Journal of Caffeine Research 4 (2014): 109-113.
  15. Broderick PA and Wenning L. “Neuromolecular Imaging and BRODERICK PROBE® nanobiosensors reveal a temporal synchrony in brain rhythms in neural transmission online with movement designs during natural physiology: Temporal asynchrony is imaged online in the same subject during pathology”. Medical Research Archives 7 (2018): 1-18.
  16. Byrnes JJ and Hammer RP. “The Disruptive Effect of Cocaine on Prepulse Inhibition Is Prevented by Repeated Administration in Rats”. Neuropsychopharmacology 5 (2000): 551-554.
  17. Cadenhead KS., et al. “Prepulse Inhibition and Habituation of the Startle Response Are Stable Neurobiological Measures in a Normal Male Population”. Biological Psychiatry 3 (1999): 360-364.
  18. Faraday MM and Grunberg NE. “The Importance of Acclimation in Acoustic Startle Amplitude And Pre-Pulse Inhibition Testing of Male and Female Rats”. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior2 (2000): 375-381.
  19. Geyer MA and Braff DL. “Startle Habituation and Sensorimotor Gating in Schizophrenic and Related Animal Models”. Schizophrenic Bulletin4 (1987): 643-668.
  20. Geyer MA and Ellenbroek B. “Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality”. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry7 (2003): 1071-1079.
  21. Krebs-Thomson K., et al. “Post-weaning handling attenuates isolation-rearing induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition in rats”. Behavioral Brain Research2 (2001): 221-224.
  22. Kumari V., et al. “Sex differences in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response”. Personality and Individual Differences4 (2003): 733-742.
  23. Kumari V., et al. “Sex differences in prepulse inhibition deficits in chronic schizophrenia”. Schizophrenia Research 2-3 (2004): 219-235.
  24. Kumari V. “Sex Differences and Hormonal Influences in Human Sensorimotor Gating: Implications for Schizophrenia”. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 8 (2011): 141-154.
  25. Lehmann J., et al. “Sex differences in the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in Wistar rats”. Behavioural Brain Research1-2 (1999): 113-117.
  26. Ludewig K., et al. “The acoustic startle reflex and its modulation: effects of age and gender in humans”. Biological Psychology3 (2003): 311-323.
  27. Malave LB and Broderick PA. “Caffeine's Attenuation of Cocaine-Induced Dopamine Release by Inhibition of Adenosine”. Journal of Caffeine Research 2 (2014): 35-40.
  28. Nunes JV and Broderick PA. “Novel research translates to clinical cases of schizophrenic and cocaine psychosis”. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment4 (2007): 475-485.
  29. Phelix CF and Broderick PA. “Light microscopic immunocytochemical evidence of converging serotonin and dopamine terminals in ventrolateral nucleus accumbens”. Brain Research Bulletin 1 (1995): 37-40.
  30. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. “Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses”. Hormones and Behavior 1 (2010): 22-32.
  31. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. “Influence of sex differences and gonadal hormones on cocaine addiction”. ILAR Journal1 (2012): 14-22.
  32. Swerdlow NR., et al. “The neural substrates of sensorimotor gating of the startle reflex: a review of recent findings and their implications”. Journal of Psychopharmacology2 (1992): 176-179.
  33. Valsamis B and Schmid S. “Habituation and Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle in Rodents”. Journal of Visualized Experiments 55 (2011): e3446.
  34. Wenning L., et al. “Nicotine Incites a Transformation to Estrus from any Estrous Cycle Stage”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry6 (2017): 200-214.
Citation: James R Hordof and Patricia A Broderick. “Acoustic Startle Response and Prepulse Inhibition: Sex Differences with Cocaine”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry 9.5 (2020): 08-16.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 21, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk