Review Article
Volume 7 Issue 8 - 2018
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse
Kenneth Blum1-7,10,14*, Edward J Modestino8, Rajendra D Badgaiyan9, David Baron10, Panayotis K Thanos11, Igor Elman12, David Siwicki6, Marcelo Febo1 and Mark S Gold13
1Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville FL. USA
2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
3Department of Psychiatry, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton VA Medical Center, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA
4Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, School of Medicine, Burlington, VM., USA
5Division of Addictive Services, Dominion Diagnostics, LLC, North Kingston, RI, USA
6Division of Precision Addiction Management, Geneus Health, LLC, San Antonio, TX, USA
7Department of Psychology, Eotvos Loránd University, Institute of Psychology, Budapest, Hungary
8Department of Psychology, Curry College, Milton, MA, USA
9Department of Psychiatry, Ichan at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
10Western University Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA
11Department of Psychology, and Institute of Addiction Research, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
12Department of Psychiatry, Cooper University School of Medicine, Camden NJ, USA
13Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
14Division of Neurogenetic Research and Addiction Therapy, The Florida House Experience, Deerfield Beach, FL, USA
*Corresponding Author: Kenneth Blum, Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville FL, USA.
Received: June 09, 2018; Published: July 30, 2018
Citation: Kenneth Blum., et al. “Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry 7.8 (2018): 564-579.
Abstract
Blum’s laboratory first showed the benefits of naloxone or narcotic antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence. This seminal work published in Nature in the early 70’s, in conjunction with many other studies, later served as the basis for the development of the narcotic antagonist (NTX) now used to treat both alcohol and opioid dependence. In 2006 an extended-release injectable of Naltrexone (XR-NTX) was approved by the FDA. Naltrexone is a relatively weak antagonist of κ - and δ-receptors and is also a potent μ-receptor antagonist. Dosages of naltrexone that effectively reduce opioid and alcohol consumption also actively block μ-receptors, but chronically down-regulate mesolimbic dopamine release. While studies show benefit especially in the short term, there is ongoing evidence that the retention and compliance with NTX are not sufficient to characterize adherence as high. However, extended-release NTX opioid treatment is associated with superior outcomes including less likely relapse (defined as daily use), and much longer time to relapse despite higher rates of concurrent non-opioid substance use like cocaine. Regarding long-term extended-release injectable (XR-NTX) for opioid dependence; there was higher compliance with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) than for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD.). Consideration of modalities in combination with XR-NTX is imperative. Research by Blum., et al. showed that a combination of Naltrexone and a pro-dopamine regulator neuro-nutrient (KB220) significantly prevented opioid relapse. Thus, early identification of addiction vulnerability with the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™) a panel of polymorphic risk alleles from ten reward circuitry genes will provide valuable information especially as it relates to genetically guided therapy with the KB220 neuro nutrient termed ‘Precision Addiction Management”.
Keywords: Extended-Release Injectable Naltrexone (XR-NTX); Reward Deficiency; Neuronutrient; Combination Therapy; Opioid Treatment
Copyright: © 2018 Kenneth Blum., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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