Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 11 - 2020
Current Knowledge on Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia’s Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic and Management
Gilberto Soler Noda1*, Yisenia Romero Díaz2, Mariela Forrellat Barrios3 and Antonio Bencomo Hernández4
1Auxiliar Professor, Auxiliar Investigator, Laboratory of Immunohematology, Institute of Hematology and Immunology, College of Health Technology, Medical University of Habana, La Habana, Cuba
2Specialist in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aggregate Investigator, Laboratory of Immunohematology, Institute of Hematology and Immunology, La Habana, Cuba
3Auxiliar Professor, Auxiliar Investigator, Institute of Hematology and Immunology, La Habana, Cuba
4Senior Investigator, Institute of Hematology and Immunology, La Habana, Cuba
*Corresponding Author: Gilberto Soler Noda, Auxiliar Professor, Auxiliar Investigator, Laboratory of Immunohematology, Institute of Hematology and Immunology, College of Health Technology, Medical University of Habana, La Habana, Cuba.
Received: September 16, 2020; Published: October 07, 2020




Abstract

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a disease caused by maternal antibodies against fetal platelet antigens inherited from the father. It can cause intracranial bleeding and lead to death or disability in the fetus/neonate. Although it is the most serious cause of thrombocytopenia in the neonate and the most common in term newborns, it has generally been poorly investigated. The pathophysiology of the disease is very similar to that of perinatal hemolytic disease; maternal IgG antibodies are transported through the placenta to the fetal circulation, opsonizing fetal platelets which are removed by phagocytosis. The antigens most implicated are HPA- 1a and HPA-4a. The clinical impact of this entity and the treatment opportunities enhance the need to implement screening programs for the detection of fetuses at risk of suffering from it, where the diagnosis is generally made after the birth of the child affected by thrombocytopenia, intracranial hemorrhage or death in utero of unexplained cause.

Keywords: Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia; NAIT; Human Platelet Antigens; HPA; Pregnancy; Platelet Alloimmunization

.

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Citation: Gilberto Soler Noda., et al. “Current Knowledge on Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia’s Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic and Management”. EC Paediatrics 9.11 (2020): 39-49.

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