Research Article
Volume 10 Issue 2 - 2021
Assessment of Animal Source Food Intake among School Going Children
Marriam Ahmed1*, Faran Khan1, Saneela Saleem1 and Sheeza Imtiaz2
1Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pakistan
2Lecturer of Food and Nutrition, Department of Health Sciences, University of South Asia, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Marriam Ahmed, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pakistan.
Received: July 20, 2020; Published: Janauray 30, 2021


Background: Malnutrition is a condition in which body does not get enough nutrients to function properly and is a major public health problem. According to National Nutrition Survey 2018 prevalence of stunting (40.2%), wasting (17.7%) and underweight is (28.9%). Because childhood is the rapid growth period of life, animal source food is of prime importance (i.e. meat and dairy) as they are the main source of protein and calcium which are important for the physical growth of children.

Methods: The population of this study includes 8 - 15 years of school going children. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed consisting questions regarding eating patterns of children and their anthropometric measurements (weight and height). Prior permission was taken from the school principal and parents of children. Sample size was 384.

Results: The data of 384 children were available for analysis. 34.6% were males while 65.4% females in the study. Results showed that 39.8% children were underweight, 43.6% were normal, 12.2% were overweight and 4.4% were obese. Majority of the school going children were not fulfilling their recommended energy intake. Average animal source protein intake was also less than the RDA. Average iron intake among school going children was less than the RDA especially in girls. 4 - 8 years of age group children were fulfilling their RDA of vitamin B12 (i.e., 1.2 µg), whereas, Vitamin B12 intake in 9 - 13 and 14 - 18 years of age group children were less than the recommendations.

Conclusion: It is concluded from our study that overall daily energy consumption and intake of animal source protein is very low in school going children which all together ultimately leads to nutritional deficiencies and poor physical growth and cognitive development.

Keywords: School Going Children; Animal Source Food; Malnutrition; Animal Source Protein; Growth and Development


  1. Ijarotimi Oluwole Steve. "Determinants of childhood malnutrition and consequences in developing countries”. Current Nutrition Reports3 (2013): 129-133.
  2. Neumann Charlotte., et al. "Contribution of animal source foods in improving diet quality and function in children in the developing world”. Nutrition Research1-2 (2002): 193-220.
  3. Jin Minchao and Lora L Iannotti. "Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: The role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts”. Social Science and Medicine105 (2014): 16-21.
  4. Grillenberger Monika., et al. "Food supplements have a positive impact on weight gain and the addition of animal source foods increases lean body mass of Kenyan schoolchildren”. The Journal of Nutrition11 (2003): 3957S-3964S.
  5. Allen Lindsay H. "To what extent can food-based approaches improve micronutrient status?”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition17 (2008).
  6. Hulett Judie L., et al. "Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial”. British Journal of Nutrition5 (2014): 875-886.
  7. Ullah Irfan., et al. "Iron Deficiency Anemia in School Age Children in District Karak Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan”. Open Journal of Blood Diseases2014 (2014).
  8. Rasmussen Sonja A., et al. "Vitamin B12 deficiency in children and adolescents”. The Journal of Pediatrics1 (2001): 10-17.
  9. Black Maureen M. "The evidence linking zinc deficiency with children's cognitive and motor functioning”. The Journal of nutrition5 (2003): 1473S-1476S.
  10. Zimmermann Michael B., et al. "Iodine-deficiency disorders”. The Lancet9645 (2008): 1251-1262.
  11. Mukudi, Edith. "Nutrition status, education participation, and school achievement among Kenyan middle-school children”. Nutrition7-8 (2003): 612-616.
  12. Kleinman Ronald E., et al. "Diet, breakfast, and academic performance in children”. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism46 (2002): 24-30.
  13. Grillenberger, Monika, et al. "Intake of micronutrients high in animal-source foods is associated with better growth in rural Kenyan school children”. British Journal of Nutrition2 (2006): 379-390.
  14. Faran Khan., et al. “Comparison of School Going Children Dietary Practices with My Pyramid Guidelines”. EC Paediatrics12 (2019): 01-11.
  15. Mwaniki EW and A N Makokha. "Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public primary schools in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya”. African Health Sciences1 (2013): 38-46.
  16. Kadiyala Suneetha and Stuart Gillespie. "Rethinking food aid to fight AIDS”. Food and Nutrition Bulletin3 (2004): 271-282.
  17. Morris Saul S., et al. "Monetary incentives in primary health care and effects on use and coverage of preventive health care interventions in rural Honduras: cluster randomised trial”. The Lancet9450 (2004): 2030-2037.
  18. Parraga I. "Growth deficits in school age children in Brazil”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition50 (2006): 687-696.
  19. Moyo Burhaan Bakari. “Childcare practices, morbidity status and nutrition status of preschool children (24-59 months) living in orphanages in Kwale County, Kenya”. Diss. Kenyatta University (2018).
  20. Murugkar Dipika Agrahar., et al. "Nutritional status of school going children (6-9 years) in rural area of Bhopal district (Madhya Pradesh), India”. IJFNS2 (2013): 61-67.
  21. Kumari K. "Health and nutritional status of school going children in Patna”. Health and Population Perspectives and Issues1 (2005): 17-25.
  22. Sati V and S Dahiya. "Nutritional Assessment of Rural School-Going Children (7-9 Years) of Hisar District”. Haryana363 (2012): 2.
  23. Robitaille Marie-Claire. "Addressing Female Iron-Deficiency Anaemia in India: Is Vegetarianism the Major Obstacle?”. ISRN Public Health2012 (2011).
  24. Murphy SP., et al. "Schoolchildren have similar predicted prevalences of inadequate intakes as toddlers in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition9 (1995): 647-657.
Citation: Marriam Ahmed., et al. “Assessment of Animal Source Food Intake among School Going Children”.EC Paediatrics 10.2 (2021): 05-11.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 21, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.