Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 8 - 2020
New Anti-Virus Agent-Kumazasa Ingredient
Nobuo Yamaguchi1,3* and Tsugiya Murayama2,3
1Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Japan
2Hokuriku University, Kanazawa, Japan
3Ishikawa Natural Medicinal Products Research Center, Ishikawa, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Nobuo Yamaguchi, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Japan.
Received: June 25, 2020; Published: July 28, 2020




Abstract

Background: A novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, was caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and has now expanded to over 200 countries and territories, infecting more than 2 million people in US and caused over 20 thousand deaths worldwide.

Kumazasa derivatives are reported safety drug to improve anti microorganisms including coronavirus in Japan and its main active ingredient is tricin (4,5,7-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyflavon). The Kumazasa derivatives can suppress the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) of the DNA virus and the coronavirus pneumonia virus of RNA virus replication in vitro.

Materials and Methods: Human embryonic pulmonary fibroblast (HEL), obtained from human fetal lungs cultivated in 9.6 cm2 shell until confluence with Dulbeccos Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) medium was carried out, supplemented with 8% amount of fetal bovine serum (FCS). Towne strain of HCMV has been adsorbed and infected in a variety of infections (MOI) = 1 in HEL cells. After incubation at 37°C for 1 hour, concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10 μM of tricin or novel compounds were added and cultivated for 6 days, and infectious HCMV numbers in the culture supernatant were quantified by the plaque method. In the plaque method, HEL cells cultivated to flow into a 24-wells plate were adsorbed on a culture supernatant that was diluted for 1 hour at 37°C 1 hour and then superimposed with DMEM medium with 2% FCS and 0.4% agar for cultivation. After several days (6 to 12 days), the number of plaques displayed under the microscope was counted and the viral load measured.

Results: Comparison of the antiviral effect of GCV, Tricin, Anti-HCMV effects were investigated for several novel compounds found by docking simulation. Here the results that show the most significant effect are shown. The novel compound has been found to exhibit a stronger anti-HCMV effect compared to GCV and Tricin. Next EC-50 values were determined and compared.

Conclusion: The network pharmacological strategy integrated molecular docking to investigate the mechanism of action of AHI against COVID-19. It provides protein targets associated with COVID-19 that can be further tested as therapeutic targets of this safety ingredients.

Keywords: Anti-Virus New CAM; Anti-Cytomegalovirus Agent; CDK9; Tricin; Corona Virus

References

  1. Spungen AM., et al. "Pulmonary obstruction in persons with cervical spine lesions exposed by bronchodilator administration". Paraplegia 6 (1993): 404-407.
  2. Yamaguchi N., et al "Aspect of QOL Assessment and Proposed New Scale for Evaluation". Open Journal of Immunology 5 (2015):147-182.
  3. Kishida K., et al. "Cranial Irradiation and Lymphocyte Subpopulation in Acute Lymphatic Leukemia". Journal of Pediatrics5 (1978):785-786.
  4. Murgita RA and Tomasi Jr TB. "Suppression of the Immune Response by Alpha-Fetoprotein". The Journal of Experimental Medicine 2 (1975): 269-286.
  5. Koshimo H., et al. "Maternal Antigenic Stimulation Actively Produces Suppressor Activity in Offspring". Developmental and Comparative Immunology1 (1989): 79-85.
  6. Zoeller M. "Tolerization during Pregnancy: Impact on the Development of Antigen-Specific Help and Suppression". European Journal of Immunology12 (1988): 1937-1943.
  7. Auerback R and Clark S. "Immunological Tolerance: Transmission from Mother to Offspring". Science 4205 (1975): 811-813.
  8. Shinka S., et al. "Immunological responsiveness in mice. I. Immunological responsiveness induced in embryonic mice by maternofetal transfer of human globulin". Biken Journal2 (1974): 59-72.
  9. Aase J M., et al. "Mumps virus infection in pregnant women and the immunological response of their offspring". The New England Journal of Medicine26 (1972): 1379-1382.
  10. Cramer DV., et al. "Immunologic Sensitization Before Birth". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology3 (1974): 431-439.
  11. Stoika RS., et al. "In Vitro Studies of Activation of Phagocytic Cells by Bioactive Peptides". Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology4 (2002): 675-688.
  12. Paul G., et al. "CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells are required for oral tolerance induction". International Immunology3 (1995): 501-504.
  13. Yamaguchi N., et al. "Rodent Macrophage Select Vin Blank Together with Vin Rouge According to SO Level in Situ". Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases4 (2014): 240-247.
  14. Yamaguchi N., et al. "Overall Estimation of Anti-Oxidant Activity by Mammal Macrophage". Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases 4 (2014): 13-21.
  15. Elbim C., et al. "The Role of Phagocytes in HIV-Related Oxidative Stress". Journal of Clinical Virology3 (2001): 99-109.
  16. Asumi Sakai., et al. “Tsugiya Murayama: Anti-human cytomegalovirus activity of components from Sasa albo-marginata (Kumazasa in Japan)”. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy 19 (2008): 125-132.
  17. Kurumi Yazawa., et al. “Anti-Coronavirus Pneumonia Virus Activity of Tricin, 4',5,7-Trihydroxy3',5'-dioxy”. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy 22 (2011): 1-11.
  18. Kazuhiko Akuzawa., et al. “Tsugiya Murayama: Inhibiting effect of tricine derivative from Sasa albo-marginata on the replication of the human cytomegaly virus”. Antiviral Research 91 (2011): 296-303.
  19. T Murayama., et al. “Anti-cytomegalovirus effects of tricin are dependent on CXCL11”. Microbe Infection 14 (2012):1086-1092.
  20. Tsugiya Murayama., et al. “Human cytomegalovirus replication supported by virus-induced activation of CCL2-CCR2 interactions”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 453 (2014): 321-325.
  21. Rie Yamada., et al. “Synergistic effects of combination treatment with ganciclovir and tricin on human cytomegalovirus replication In vitro”. Antiviral Research 125 (2016): 79-83.
  22. Yumiko Akai., et al. “Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by tricin is associated with depressive CCL2 expression”. Antiviral Research 148 (2017): 15-19.
  23. Hidetaka Sadanari., et al. “The antihuman cytomegalovirus tricin inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 9”. FEBS Open Biology 8 (2018): 646-654.
  24. Akimasa Itho., et al. “Tricin inhibits CCL5 induction required for the efficient growth of human cytomegalovirus”. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 62 (2018): 341-347.
  25. Kazuhiro J Fujimoto., et al. “A silico-designated silico in silico flavone derivative, 6-fluoro-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyflavon has a greater antihuman cytomegalovirus effect”. Antiviral Research 154 (2018): 10-16.
Citation: Nobuo Yamaguchi and Tsugiya Murayama. “New Anti-Virus Agent-Kumazasa Ingredient”. EC Paediatrics 9.8 (2020): 177-185.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 10, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.