Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 8 - 2020
Childhood Immunizations. An Immunological Perspective and Principles of Vaccinations. A Review
Andrew Kiboneka*
Department of Pediatrics, Hage Geingob School of Medicine, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia
*Corresponding Author: Andrew Kiboneka, Department of Pediatrics, Hage Geingob School of Medicine, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia.
Received: March 30, 2020; Published: July 22, 2020




Abstract

Although the history of Immunizations and vaccinations can be traced back to as early as the 5th Century Before Christ (BC), with work by Thucydides, in Athens, Greece, describing immunity to plague (-Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis. The disease causes lymphatic swelling). The noun, immunity, the state of being immune from or insusceptible to a particular disease or the like. the condition that permits either natural or acquired resistance to disease, is derived from the Latin word “Immunitas” which referred to legal protection given to Roman Senators, during their terms of office.

The evolution of immunology in the Western hemisphere, can be traced back to the works of Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur amongst others. Edward Jenner injected material from a cowpox postule into the arm of an 8 year old boy. When this boy was subsequently injected/inoculated with smallpox. the disease (small pox) did not develop. Jenner’s breakthrough treatise on vaccination (Latin “vaccinus” or of from cows) was published in 1798. Small pox, was the first disease, demonstrating the important role of immunizations to the control of communicable diseases from a public health perspective, the others being good personal hygiene and good sanitation.

Immunizations may be passive or active. Immunizations is not synonymous with vaccinations, as immunity may be conferred through other routes other than injections of antigen e.g. Maternal transfer of protective immunity to the fetus/new born as well as passive transfer of Immunity through serum.

Pathogens/Microbes have evolved different mechanisms for evading the normal immune system and various strategies have been employed in vaccine development. Prior to licensure, all vaccines undergo rigorous immunogenicity and safety testing. Mild and self-limited adverse events (e.g. local pain and tenderness at the injection site) are true, causally associated reactions. Serious causally related adverse events also can occur but are rare

Many childhood diseases have been virtually eliminated through the process of immunizations, although this remains elusive for some diseases e.g. HIV, Malaria and more recently Corona Virus. The ultimate goal of immunization is control of infection transmission, elimination of disease, and eventually, eradication of the pathogen.

Keywords: Immunizations; Childhood Diseases; National Immunization Programs (NIPs)

References

  1. Abul K Abbas., et al. “Cellular and Molecular Immunology”. Seventh Edition, Elsevier, Saunders (2012).
  2. Abul K Abbas., et al. “Basic Immunology. Functions and disorders of the Immune system”. Fourth Edition, Elsevier Saunders (2014).
  3. Owen Punt Stanford. Kuby Immunology. Seventh Edition, McMillan (2013).
  4. Namibia Standard Treatment Guidelines. Ministry of Health and Social services (2011).
Citation: Andrew Kiboneka. “Childhood Immunizations. An Immunological Perspective and Principles of Vaccinations. A Review”. EC Paediatrics 9.8 (2020): 133-138.

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