Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 8 - 2020
Respiratory Viruses Associated with the Genesis and Exacerbation of Asthma
Gerardo T Lopez Perez1*, María de Lourdes Patricia Ramirez Sandoval2 and Karla Vanessa Murillo Galindo3
1Allergist-Infectologist-Pediatrician, Head of Allergy Service, National Institute of Pediatrics, Titular Member of the Mexican Academy of Pediatrics and Member of Mexican College of Pediatricians Specialists in Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Mexican College of Clinical Immunology and Allergy and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Mexico
2Pediatrician and Infectologist, Medical Staff Member at General Hospital Z-32 IMSS, Titular Member of the Mexican Academy of Pediatrics and Mexican Association of Pediatric Infectology, Member of the Mexican Association of Infectology and Clinical Microbiology, Mexico
3Fellow in Training in the Specialty of Medical Pediatrics, National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico
*Corresponding Author: Gerardo T Lopez Perez, Allergist-Infectologist-Pediatrician, Head of Allergy Service, National Institute of Pediatrics, Titular Member of the Mexican Academy of Pediatrics and Member of Mexican College of Pediatricians Specialists in Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Mexican College of Clinical Immunology and Allergy and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Mexico.
Received: June 26, 2020; Published: July 15, 2020




Abstract

Asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by inflammation of the airways, with increased mucus secretion and bronchial hyperreactivity, all of which cause reversible obstruction of air flow. Chronic inflammation, altered epithelium, and airway remodeling increase susceptibility to many environmental factors such as viral infections and allergens.

The epidemiological association between viral bronchiolitis in childhood, especially associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the subsequent development of asthma has been described for decades. The different response of children after RSV infection could depend on genetic factors related to the immune balance of the lymphocytes. In recent years, it has been observed that not only RSV bronchiolitis is a risk factor for childhood asthma, but infection by other viruses such as human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus, among others.

Recently, studies based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques have considerably detected the proportion of asthma exacerbations associated with viruses, identifying RSV and Rhinovirus (RV) as the most frequent.

Both RSV and RV are transmitted primarily through direct contacts and aerosol particles. Both viruses replicate in ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower airways, which bind to unique cellular receptors to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 used by RV-B and most RV-As low-density lipoprotein receptors. used by some RV-As, cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) used by RV-C, and CX3CR1 used by RSV. RSV induces apoptosis and necrosis of epithelial cells and generally causes more damage to the airway epithelium compared to RV. Currently in our country, we do not have specific vaccines for RSV and RV.

Keywords: Asthma; Respiratory Viruses; Bronchiolitis; Children

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Citation: Gerardo T Lopez Perez., et al. “Respiratory Viruses Associated with the Genesis and Exacerbation of Asthma”. EC Paediatrics 9.8 (2020): 99-109.

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