Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 6 - 2020
Evaluation of Immune Response, Comorbidities and Immunomodulation in SARS-CoV2 Pandemic
Gerardo T López Pérez1*, María de Lourdes Patricia Ramírez Sandoval2 and Mayra S Torres Altamirano3
1Allergist-Infectologist-Pediatrician, Head of Allergy Service, National Institute Of Pediatrics, Titular Member of the Mexican Academy of Pediatrics and Member of Mexican College of Pediatricians Specialists in Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Mexican College of Clinical Immunology and Allergy and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, México
2Pediatrician and Infectologist, Medical Staff Member at General Hospital Z-32 IMSS, Titular Member of the Mexican Academy of Pediatrics and Mexican Association of Pediatric Infectology: Member of the Mexican Association of Infectology and Clinical Microbiology, México
3Pediatric Dentistry, Medical Director of Asistencia Pediatrica Integral, México
*Corresponding Author: Gerardo T López Pérez, Allergist-Infectologist-Pediatrician, Head of Allergy Service, National Institute Of Pediatrics, Titular Member of the Mexican Academy of Pediatrics and Member of Mexican College of Pediatricians Specialists in Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Mexican College of Clinical Immunology and Allergy and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, México.
Received: April 30, 2020; Published: May 18, 2020




Abstract

SARS-CoV2 can be originate from bats or unknown intermediate hosts and cross the species barrier toward humans. Virus-host interactions affect the entry and viral replication. Virus genome encodes four essential structural proteins, the glycoprotein spike, the small envelope protein, protein arrays and nucleocapsid protein. The S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV2 binds to receptors on the host cell enzyme, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a critical step for the entry of viruses, it is expressed more in men than in women probably by the estradiol and testosterone that can influence in a different way the activity of ACE.

It is considered a viremia phase when the virus can pass from the salivary glands and mucous membranes, in special nose and larynx, to lungs and other organs with the same receptors as heart, liver and even to the central nervous system. It can get intestines, which may explain why is detected SARS-CoV-2 in feces for up to 30 days from the start of the infection.

Risk factors of the host are key to viral pathogenesis and the most recognized are an immunosuppressed status, old age, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus or chronic lung diseases. When the immune system is inefficient to effectively control the virus in the acute phase may evolve to a serious or critical condition.

The timely and accurate diagnosis of infection by SARS-CoV2 is the cornerstone of efforts to provide adequate treatment to patients, limiting the spread of the virus and ultimately, eliminating the presence of the virus in humanity.

It is essential to know that treatment has several aspects, the first is during the acute and critical phase of the disease, where the life of the patient is involved and the other, is the stage in which his/her clinical condition is mild and is where it really is to recommend only isolation. However, this is something you should consider because some evolve to seriousness; this should be avoid because it implies serious health and quality life impairment with an increase of contagion. It has been suggested the use of immunostimulants, known as biological response modifiers, whose effectiveness has been demonstrated in other type of acute and recurrent viral respiratory infections.

Keywords: SARS-CoV2; Immune Response in COVID-19; Risk Factors to Covid-19; Treatment; Immunomodulation in Covid-19; Pidotimod

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Citation: Gerardo T López Pérez., et al. “Evaluation of Immune Response, Comorbidities and Immunomodulation in SARS-CoV2 Pandemic”. EC Paediatrics 9.6 (2020): 70-90.

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