Conceptual Paper
Volume 9 Issue 4 - 2020
An Introduction to Spiral Steroids
Fred Chasalow1,2*
1Managing Partner, IOMA LLC, CA, USA
2Visiting Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine, VAMC, San Francisco, CA, USA
*Corresponding Author: Fred Chasalow, Managing Partner, IOMA LLC, CA, USA.
Received: March 06, 2020; Published: March 20, 2020

Keywords: DLM; Ionotropin; Spiral Steroids; Orphan Ligands; Phosphocholine Steroid Conjugates


DLM: Digoxin-Like Materials; RIA: Radioimmunoassay; K+: Potassium; Na+: Sodium; MBG: Marinobufagenin; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; MS: Mass Spectrometry; PC: Phosphocholine; DHT: 5α-Dihydrotestosterone

An introduction to spiral steroids 

What are spiral steroids: Spiral steroids have several unusual structural features: two of the four valences of carbon 17 form part of Ring D while the other two valences form Ring E (See figure 1). Thus, carbon 17 is part of both rings. None of the common endogenous steroids have a spiral structure. The four rings (A, B, C and D) of most steroids form a plane (more or less) with axial methyl groups sticking up. In contrast, although Ring E is also planar, the plane is perpendicular to ABCD plane. Finally, when the Δ5-6 alkene is reduced, the stereochemistry must be 5β. In contrast, when testosterone is reduced, the product is 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The enzyme that catalyzes the reduction requires the substrate to be a Δ4-3-ketone. The spiral steroids are all 3-phosphoesters and would not be substrates for the 5α-reductase. A separate reductase enzyme is used for synthesis of bile acids such as cholic acid. This enzyme doesn’t require Δ4-3-ketone substrates but forms 5β-products. This difference is significant because, despite the huge concentrations of the PC-steroids, the difference would be expected to prevent binding to the nuclear receptors for the classical steroids.


  1. Withering W. “An account of the foxglove and some of its medical uses: with practical remarks on dropsy and other diseases”. G. G. J. & J. Robinson. London (1785).
  2. Szent-Gyorgyi A. “Chemical physiology of contraction in body and heart muscle”. Academic Press. New York, NY. (As cited in Labella FS. Endogenous digitalis-like factors: Introductory Remarks. LaBella FS. Fed Proceedings 44 (1985): 2780-2781.
  3. Walsh P., et al. “Measurement of digoxin by radioimmunoassay”. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 7 (1977): 79-87.
  4. Newton M. “The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers” (2006): 120-121. 
  5. Buckalew V. “Endogenous digitalis-like factors: an overview of the history”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 6 (2015): 49. 
  6. Bagrov A., et al. “Endogenous Cardiotonic Steroids: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Novel Therapeutic Targets”. Pharmacological Reviews 61 (2009): 9-38. 
  7. Hamlyn J., et al. “Identification and characterization of an ouabain-like compound from human plasma”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88 (1991): 6259-6263. 
  8. Baecher S., et al. “No endogenous ouabain is detectable in human plasma by ultrasensitive UPLC-MS/MS”. Clinica Chimica Acta 431 (2014): 87-89. 
  9. Blaustein MP. “Why isn't endogenous ouabain more widely accepted?” American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 307.5 (2014): H635-H639. 
  10. Lewis L., et al. “Endogenous ouabain is not ouabain”. Hypertension 64.4 (2014): 680-683. 
  11. Nichols G. “Re:RE: Endogenous Ouabain is not Ouabain”. Hypertension (2014). 
  12. Abi-Ghanem D., et al. “A chemiflourescent immunoassay for the determination of marinobufagenin in body fluids”. Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry 32.1 (2011): 331-346. 
  13. Chasalow F and Pierce-Cohen L. “Ionotropin is the mammalian digoxin-like material (DLM). It is a phosphocholine ester of a steroid with 23 carbon atoms”. Steroids (2018). 
  14. Chasalow FI and Blethen SL. “Characterization of digoxin-like material in human cord serum”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 591 (1990): 212-221. 
  15. Chasalow F. “Spiral Phosphocholine Steroids and DLM in Chicken Eggs (Gallus gallus domesticus)”. EC Paediatrics 8.10 (2019): 1-12.
  16. Chasalow F., et al. “Spiral steroids as potential markers for pre-eclampsia: a pilot study”. Steroids 151 (2019): 108466. 
  17. Chasalow F. “A new concept for the regulation of electrolytes in pregnancy: the role of Ionotropin: The endogenous potassium sparing hormone”. EC Paediatrics 7.6 (2018): 527-532. 
  18. Chasalow FI. “A New Concept: Ionotropin might be a Factor in Mobilization for [a] the Fight or Flight Response and [b[ Child Birth”. EC Paediatrics 7.9 (2018): 909-918. 
  19. Neville M. “The Physiological Basis of Milk Secretion”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 586 (1990): 1-11.
  20. Bizzarri C., et al. “Water Balance and ‘Salt Wasting’ in the First Year of Life: The Role of Aldosterone-Signaling Defects”. Hormone Research in Paediatrics 86 (2016): 143-153. 
Citation: Fred Chasalow. “An Introduction to Spiral Steroids”. EC Paediatrics 9.4 (2020): 83-87.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.