Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2020
Prevalence of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis among School Children in Lebanon
Merna El Khansa, Amal Naous* and Mariam Rajab
Department of Pediatrics, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
*Corresponding Author: Amal Naous, Department of Pediatrics, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.
Received: January 08, 2020; Published: February 10, 2020




Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of LTBI among Lebanese healthy school children and to compare the result with a previous study done in Lebanon in 2004 which showed a prevalence of 7.5%.

Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, including demographic characteristics, time of prior Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, known household contact with tuberculosis as well as parents' characteristics and living conditions were administered. Purified protein derivative (PPD) testing was performed on selected school children aged between 3 and 19 years of age. Schools were selected from 4 Governorates of Lebanon (Beirut, Bekaa, South and North). We measured PPD reactivity. LTBI cases were defined by positive PPD test. Chest radiographs were obtained as part of the evaluation for children with positive PPD.

Results: Of the 5858 distributed questionnaires, 2805 school children entered into our final data analysis. 2688 (95.8%) had negative PPD test, and 117 (4.2%) had positive PPD test. None of the participants demonstrated TB-related abnormality on Chest X-ray. The highest prevalence was in Bekaa (4.9%) followed by Beirut (4.6%), South (4.3%), then North (1.9%) (P = 0.033). The prevalence of LTBI was higher among non-Lebanese population (P = 0.007). Of 33% of children who were BCG vaccinated, 4.3% had positive PPD test, and from the remaining 67% who were non-BCG vaccinated children, 4% had positive PPD test, with no statistically significant P-value (P = 0.443).

Conclusion: Our prevalence of LTBI among school children is 4.2% which indicates a decrease in the prevalence in our country over the last 10 years. This data support the recommendation to screen for tuberculosis even for vaccinated children to reach the WHO End TB Strategy by 2030.

Keywords: Latent Tuberculosis; PPD; BCG; Induration

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Citation: Amal Naous., et al. “Prevalence of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis among School Children in Lebanon”. EC Paediatrics 9.3 (2020): 01-09.

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