Case Study
Volume 7 Issue 8 - 2018
Diagnostic and Management of Hyaline Membrane Disease
Daouda Diamane Ndour1* and Gueye M2
1Neonatology, Teaching Hospital Dalal Jamm, Dakar, Senegal
2Neonatology, Teaching Hospital Abass Ndao, Dakar, Senegal
*Corresponding Author: Daouda Diamane Ndour, Neonatology, Teaching Hospital Dalal Jamm, Dakar, Senegal.
Received: July 05, 2018; Published: July 31, 2018
Citation: Daouda Diamane Ndour and Gueye M. “Diagnostic and Management of Hyaline Membrane Disease”. EC Paediatrics 7.8 (2018): 810-819.
Abstract
Hyaline membrane disease (HMD), more commonly called respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), is one of the first causes of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.
HMD is characterized by a primitive deficiency in surfactant, synthesized by type II pneumocytes. It is due to the functional insufficiency both quantitative but also qualitative (specific proteins) in surfactant. This is the first pathology to have been successfully treated by exogenous surfactant.
Surfactant which consists of phospholipids and protein is necessary for the formation of functional residual capacity (FRC), which is the key to gas exchange. The surfactant deficiency causes a hyaline material to be deposited on the surface of the alveoli that remain collapsed or unstable, causing atelectasis and shunt effect.
Its incidence is inversely proportional to gestational age, with no absolute correlation between the degree of lung maturation and gestational age.
It is characterized by respiratory distress in the early hours of life related to the increase in the elastic pulmonary retraction forces and a collapse of compliance. The radiological image is characteristic (chest retractions, alveolar syndrome with reticulogranular pattern and air bronchogram).
Its prevention uses corticosteroids.
Treatment for HMD may include:
• Mechanical breathing machine,
• Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) which is associated with a lower risk of the occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasiaor (BPD) or death in preterm infants,
• Surfactant replacement with artificial surfactant.
We propose from a literature review to take a look at the different aspects of this pathology increasingly common with the increase in the number of premature births.
Keywords: Hyaline Membrane Disease; CPAP; Surfactant; Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
Copyright: © 2018 Daouda Diamane Ndour and Gueye M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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